La redacción de la concentración plasmática de glutamato mediante diálisis peritoneal como estrategia para disminuir el daño isquémico cerebral

  1. Victor Manuel Gonzalez Romera
Supervised by:
  1. José Sánchez-Prieto Borja Director
  2. Ignacio Lizasoain Hernández Director
  3. María Angeles Moro Sánchez Director

Defence university: Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Year of defence: 2016

Committee:
  1. María Isabel Colado Megía Chair
  2. Olivia Hurtado Moreno Secretary
  3. David Bartolomé Martín Committee member
  4. Florentino Nombela Merchán Committee member
  5. Carmen Delgado Canencia Committee member

Type: Thesis

Abstract

Cerebral ischemia or stroke is a disease very present in today's world, especially in developed countries, as well as being one of the main causes of death in the populations of these countries. It is also one of the leading causes of disability and dementia, with consequent socio-economic impact. When the blood flow in the brain is interrupted or reduced there is an area called core which is a quite defined zone which will be the most affected area and in which the most severe damage will occur. Around this area there is another region, the penumbra, where blood flow is reduced, but it can be kept functional for a longer period of time, so if we act on this area, the tissue is considered potentially salvageable (Astrup et al., 1977). The energy deficit occurred as a result of reduced oxygen and glucose in the brain causes depolarization of the plasma membrane (for review, see Pulsinelli, 1992) with the subsequent opening of Ca2+ voltage-dependent, resulting in the release of glutamate into the extracellular medium. The increase of glutamate into the extracellular space in turn produces continued stimulation of glutamate receptors AMPA and NMDA, leading to the entrance of Na+ and Ca2+ in the cell causing increased membrane depolarization, the production of edema and expression and/or activation of enzymes that ultimately lead to cell death (Choi, 1988; Kristian y Siesjo, 1998). Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmissor in the central nervous system (for review, see Nicholls, 1993). Its concentration in CNS is not homogeneous: whereas in the extracellular space it remains about 1 μM at baseline, its intracellular concentration ranges from 5 to 10 mM, and reach concentrations between 50 and 100 mM in synaptic vesicles(Nicholls, 1993; Teichberg et al., 2009). Glutamate release is a process controlled by Ca2+ entry through the voltage-dependents channels and when it is released, glutamate is reuptaken by specific transporters localized in membranes of astrocytes and neurons for reuse, which can control its concentration in synaptic cleft (Nicholls y Attwell, 1990)...