Motivation and self-concept in windsurfersA study of professional and recreational participants

  1. Cristián Modroño Pascual 1
  2. Félix Guillén García
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España

    GRID grid.10041.34

Revista de psicología del deporte

ISSN: 1132-239X

Year of publication: 2016

Volume: 25

Issue: 1

Pages: 105-112

Type: Article

Export: RIS


JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Year 2016
  • Journal Impact Factor: 0.789
  • Best Quartile: Q4
  • Area: PSYCHOLOGY, APPLIED Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 67/80 (Ranking edition: SSCI)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Year 2016
  • SJR Journal Impact: 0.542
  • Best Quartile: Q3
  • Area: Applied Psychology Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 114/219
  • Area: Sports Science Quartile: Q3 Rank in area: 80/127

Índice Dialnet de Revistas

  • Year 2016
  • Journal Impact: 1.901
  • Field: DEPORTE Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 1/44
  • Field: PSICOLOGÍA Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 4/118


  • Social Sciences: B


  • Year 2016
  • CiteScore of the Journal : 1.9
  • Area: Applied Psychology Percentile: 43


The purpose of this study was to examine self-determined motivation, achievement goal orientations, and self-concept characteristics of professional, competitive amateur and noncompetitive recreational windsurfers. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 140 individuals including 79 (54 professionals and 25 non-professionals) individuals who were participants in either a championship or a recreational competition. Also, surveyed were 61 recreational but non-competitive windsurfers. Overall, the results revealed high levels of self-determined motivation. In addition, participants reported a positive physical self-concept, a strong task motivational orientation and a weak ego goal orientation. On the motivational and self-concept dimensions, significant differences were found between competitive windsurfers and non-competitive windsurfers but not between the professional competitors and the amateur competitors. No significant gender differences emerged. Age was negatively related to an ego goal orientation as well as to physical self-concept. Performance outcomes could not be predicted by this set of variables.

Bibliographic References

  • Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
  • Balaguer, I., Castillo, I. and Tomás, I. (1996). Analysis of the psychometric properties of the Spanish-language version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Psicologica, 17, 71-81.
  • Bennett, R. and Kremer, P. (2000, July). The psychology of peak performance among elite surfers. Paper presented at the 2nd Monash Sport Psychology Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Brière, N. M., Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R. and Pelletier, L. G. (1995). Development and validation of a measure of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and amotivation in the sporting context: The Sport Motivation Scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 465-489.
  • BRislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. Lonner and J. Berry (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research (pp. 137-164). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Brymer, E. and Schweitzer, R. (2013). The search for freedom in extreme sports: A phenomenological exploration. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(6), 865-873.
  • Castillo, I., Balaguer, I. and Duda, J. L. (2002). Goal orientations of adolescents in the sport context. Psicothema, 14, 280-287.
  • Cuevas, R., Contreras, O., Fernández, J. G. and González-Martí, I. (2014). Influencia de la motivación y el autoconcepto físico sobre la intención de ser físicamente activo. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 31(1), 17-24.
  • Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Deci. E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
  • Diehm, R. and Armatas, C. (2004). Surfing: An avenue for socially acceptable risk-taking, satisfying needs for sensation seeking and experience seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 663-677.
  • Dieppa, M., Machargo, J., Lujan, I. and Guillén, F. (2008). Autoconcepto general y físico en jóvenes españoles y brasileños que practican actividad física vs. no practicantes. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 17, 221-339.
  • Duda, J. L. (1989). The relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 318-335.
  • DUda, J. L. (2001). Goals perspectives research in sport: Pushing the boundaries and clarifying some misunderstandings. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 129-182).
  • Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Duda, J. L. (2005). Motivation in sport: The relevance of competence and achievement goals. In A. J. Elliot and C. S. Dweck (Ed.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 318-335). New York: Guildford Publications.
  • Duda, J. L. and Ntoumanis, N. (2005). After-school sport for children: Implications of a task-involving motivational climate. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson and J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 311-330). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Duda, J. L. and Whitehead, J. (1998). Measurement of goal perspectives in the physical domain. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 21-48). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
  • Duda, J. L., Chi, L., Newton, M. L., Walling, M. D. and Catley, D. (1995). Task and ego orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 40-63.
  • Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis. Etnier, J. L., Sidman, C. L. and Hancock, L. C. (2004). An examination of goal orientation profiles and motivation in adult team sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 35, 173-188.
  • Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., Brière, N. M. and Provencher, P. J. (1995). Competitive and recreational sport structures and gender: A test of their relationship with sport motivation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26(1), 24-39.
  • Fraley, C. and Raftery, A. E. (2002) Model-Based Clustering, Discriminant Analysis, and Density Estimation. Journal Statistical Association, 97, 611 631.
  • García, J. F. and Musitu, G. (1999). AF5. Self-concept Form 5. Madrid: TEA ediciones. Hagger, M. S. and Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2007). Advances in Self-determination theory research in sport and exercise. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 8, 597-599.
  • Halliburton, A. L. and Weiss, M. R. (2002). Sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate among adolescent female gymnasts varying in skill level. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 396-419.
  • Harter, S. (2006). Developmental and individual perspectives on self-esteem. In D. K. Mroczek, and T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of Personality (pp. 311-336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Hodge, K. and Petlichkoff, L. (2000). Goal profiles in sport motivation: A Cluster analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22, 256-272.
  • León, J., Núnez, J. L., Domínguez, E. G. y Martín-Albo, J. (2013). Motivación intrínseca, autoconcepto físico y satisfacción con la vida en practicantes de ejercicio físico: análisis de un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales en el entorno de Programación R. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 8(1), 39-58.
  • Marsh, H. W. (2002). A multidimensional physical self-concept: A construct validity approach to theory, measurement, and research. Psychology: The Journal of the Hellenic Psychological Society, 9, 459-493.
  • Martín-Albo, J., Núñez, J. L. Domínguez, E., León, J. and Tomás, J. M. (2012). Relationships between intrinsic motivation, physical self-concept and satisfaction with life: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 337-347.
  • Modroño, C. and Guillen, F. (2011). Anxiety Characteristics of Competitive Windsurfers: Age, Gender, Performance Outcome. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34, 281-294.
  • Moreno, J. A., Cervelló, E. and González-Cutre, D. (2007). Analizando la motivación en el deporte: Un estudio a través de la teoría de la autodeterminación. Apuntes de Psicología, 25, 35-51.
  • Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice and performance. Psychological Review, 21, 328-346.
  • Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Núñez, J. L., Martín-Albo, J., Navarro, J. G. and González, V. M. (2006). Preliminary validation of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Perceptual & Motor Skills 102, 919-930.
  • Papaioannou, A. G., Marsh, H. W. and Theodorakis, Y. (2004). A multilevel approach to motivational climate in physical education and sport settings: An individual or a group level construct? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 90-118.
  • Park, S. S., Rhim, Y. T., Kim, M. J., Kim, S. K. and Yoo, J. I. (2014). The influence of perceived risk on participation motivation and re-participation intention in marine sports. Journal of Coastal Research, 72, 96-100.
  • Pelletier, L. G., Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., Tuson, K. M., Brière, N. M. and Blais, M. R. (1995). Toward a new measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sports: The Sports Motivation Scale (SMS). Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 35-53.
  • Roberts, G. C. (2001). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity; the influence of achievement goals on motivational process. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise. (pp. 1-50). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Roberts, G. C.,
  • Treasure, D. C. and Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sport and physical activity: An achievement goal interpretation. In G. Tenenbaum and R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 3-30). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior. In O. P. John, R. W. Robbins y L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 654-678). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J. and Stanton, J. C. (1976). Self-concept: validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46, 407 441.
  • Whitehead, J. (1995). Multiple achievement orientations and participants in youth sport: A cultural and developmental perspective. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 431-452.
  • Wiersma, L. D. (2014). A phenomenological investigation of the Psychology of big-wave surfing at Maverick’s. The Sport Psychologist, 28(2), 151163.