Desarrollo de una Escala Subjetiva de Carga Mental de Trabajo (ESCAM)

  1. Gladys Rolo González
  2. María Dolores Díaz Cabrera
  3. Estefanía Hernández Fernaud
Revista de psicología del trabajo y de las organizaciones = Journal of work and organizational psychology

ISSN: 1576-5962

Year of publication: 2009

Volume: 25

Issue: 1

Pages: 29-38

Type: Article

DOI: 10.4321/S1576-59622009000100004 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor


The main aim of this study was to the psychometric characteristics of a multidimensional instrument of a subjective mental workload (ESCAM). The sample consisted of 474 individuals of both sex. A mental workload scale of 31 items was elaborated. The factor analysis showed five dimensions of workload: cognitive ments and information complexity, health consequences for workers, task characteristics, temporal organization of work and work rate. The results the internal consistency for each workload dimension as well as the reliability of the scale.

Bibliographic References

  • Annett, J. (2002). Subjective rating scales: science or art? Ergonomics, 45, 966-987.
  • Cañas, J.J. (2004). Personas y Máquinas. El diseño de su interacción desde la ergonomía cognitiva. Madrid: Pirámide.
  • Gaillard, A.W.K. (2001) Stress, workload, and fatigue as three biobehavioral states: a general overview. En P.A. Hancock y P.A. Desmond (Eds.): Stress, Workload and Fatigue, (pp 623-639). Nueva Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • González, J.L., Moreno, B. y Garrosa, E. (2005). Carga Mental y Fatiga Laboral. Teoría y evaluación. Madrid: Pirámide.
  • Gopher, D. y Donchin, E. (1986). Workload. An examination of the concept. En K. Boff, L. Kaufman y J.P. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Human Performance (vol. II), (pp 41.1-41.49). Nueva York: Wiley.
  • Gopher, D. y Kimchi, R. (1989). Engineering Psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 431-455.
  • Hacker, W. (2001). Carga mental de Trabajo. En Organización Internacional del Trabajo: Enciclopedia de Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo (1ª edición electrónica en español). Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo. (
  • Hart, S.G., Childress, M. E. y Bortolussi, M. (1981). Defining the subjective experience of workload. En Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Human Factors Society (pp 527-531). California: Human Factors Society.
  • Hart, S.G. y Wickens, C.D. (1990). Workload assessment and prediction. En H. R. Booher (ed.), MANPRINT: An emerging technology. Advanced concepts for integrating people, machines and organizations (pp 257-300). Nueva York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Hernández-Fernaud, E., Díaz-Cabrera, D., y Rolo-González, G. (2004). Desarrollo de una escala de evaluación subjetiva de la carga mental de trabajo. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Occupational Risk Prevention ORP’ 2004. Santiago de Compostela. España.
  • Jex, H. R. (1988). Measuring mental workload: Problems, Progress, and Promises. En P.A. Hancock y N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human Mental Workload (pp 5-39). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Lauridsen, O. y Tonnesen, T. (1990). Injuries related to aspects of shiftworking. A comparison of different offshore shift arragements. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 12, 167-176.
  • Meshkati, N. (1988). Toward development of a cohesive model of workload. En Hancock, P.A. y Meshkati, N. (Eds.), Human Mental Workload (pp 305-314). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Moray, N. (1979). Mental Workload. Its Theory and Measurement. Nueva York: Plenum Press.
  • Mulder, G. (1979). Mental Load, Mental Effort and Attention. En N. Moray (Ed.), Mental Workload. Its Theory and Measurement (pp 299-326) . Nueva York: Plenum Press.
  • Nogareda, C. (1991). Carga mental en el trabajo hospitalario: Guía para su valoración. Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo. Recuperado el 25 de enero de 2009. http:// Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Fichero s/201a300/ntp_275.pdf
  • Pickup, L., Wilson, J.R., Norris, B.J., Mitchell, L. y Morrisroe, G. (2005). The integrated Workload Scale (IWS): A new self-report tool to assess railway signaller workload. Applied Ergonomics, 36, 681-693.
  • Pretorius, A. y Cilliers, P.J. (2007). Development of a mental workload index: A systems approach. Ergonomics, 50, 9, 1503-1515.
  • Rolo, G., Díaz-Cabrera, D. y Hernández-Fernaud, E. (2003). Subjective evaluation of workload: psychometric characteristics of a multidimensional instrument. Proceedings of the XI Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology EAWOP. Lisboa, Portugal.
  • Russel, D.W. (2002). In search of underlying dimensions: The use (and abuse) of factor analysis in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 12, 1629-1646.
  • Sanders, A.M. (1979). Some Remarks on Mental Load. En N. Moray (Ed.), Mental Workload. Its Theory and Measurement (pp 41-78). Nueva York: Plenum Press.
  • Sluiter, J.K., Croon, E. M., Meijman, T.F. y Frings-Dresen, M. H. W. (2003). Need for recovery from work related fatigue and its role in the development and prediction of subjective health complaints. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 62-70.
  • Tabachnick, B.G. y Fidell, L.S. (1989). Using multivariate statistics (2ª ed.). Nueva York: Harper Collins Publishers.
  • Wickens, C.D. (1984). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Ohio: Charles E. Merril Publishing Co.
  • Zeller, R.A. y Carmines, E.G. (1980). Measurement in the social sciences. Nueva York: Cambridge University Press.