Deterioro del aprendizaje visoespacial en la enfermedad de Parkinson

  1. Iván Galtier Hernández
  2. María Antonieta Nieto Barco
  3. José Barroso Ribal
  4. Jesús Norelis Lorenzo
Journal:
Psicothema

ISSN: 0214-9915

Year of publication: 2009

Volume: 21

Issue: 1

Pages: 21-26

Type: Article

Abstract

A pesar del hecho de que en la Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) se han encontrado alteraciones en diferentes procesos mnésicos, la capacidad de aprendizaje espacial es aún un aspecto poco estudiado. Nuestro objetivo es estudiar el estado de la capacidad de aprendizaje visoespacial y verbal en una muestra de pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson, sin demencia, en estadio leve-moderado, y analizar la posible influencia de la velocidad de procesamiento, funciones atencionales, memoria de trabajo y percepción visoespacial. Los pacientes (N= 20) rindieron significativamente peor que los controles (N= 20) en Localización Espacial, Juicio de Orientación de Líneas (JOLT) y 8/30 SRT. No se observaron diferencias en el resto de funciones evaluadas. El análisis de regresión mostró que el rendimiento en Localización Espacial y el JOLT explican un 58,2% de la varianza de la curva de aprendizaje visoespacial. Nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto una alteración temprana en la EP de la percepción y memoria de trabajo visoespacial y, debido en gran medida a estas alteraciones primarias, un déficit de aprendizaje espacial. Estos resultados sugieren una amplia afectación de los procesos visoespaciales, explicable por la disfunción de los circuitos córtico-estriatales que implican tanto al córtex prefrontal como al córtex parietal posterior.

Bibliographic References

  • Alegret, M., Vendrell, P., Junqué C., Valldeoriola, F., y Tolosa, E. (2001). Visuospatial deficits in Parkinson’s disease assessed by judgment of Line Orientation Test: Error analices and practice effects. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 592-598.
  • Alexander, G.E., Delong, M.R., y Strick, P.L. (1986). Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 9, 357-381.
  • Alexander, G.E., Crutcher, M.D., y DeLong, M.R. (1990). Basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, «prefrontal» and «limbic» functions. Progress in Brain Research, 85, 119-146.
  • Aarsland, D., Zaccai, J., y Brayne, C. (2005). A systematic review of prevalence studies of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Movement and Disorders, 20(10), 1255-1263.
  • Barbizet, J., y Cany, E. (1968). Clinical and Psychometrical Study of Patients with Memory Disturbances. International Journal of Neurology 7, 44-54.
  • Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., Mock, I., y Erbaugh, I. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 94, 378-382.
  • Beck A.T., y Lester, D. (1973). Components of depression in attempted suicides. Journal of Psychology, 85, 257-260.
  • Benedet, M.J., y Alejandre, M.A. (1998). TAVEC: Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense. Manual. Madrid: TEA ediciones.
  • Benton, A.L., Hamsher, K. deS., Varney, N.R., y Spreen, O. (1983). Contributions of the neuropsychological assessment: A clinical manual. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
  • Boller, F., Passafiume, D., Keefe, N.C., Rogers, K., Morrow, L., y Kim, Y. (1984). Visuospatial impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Role of perceptual and motor factors. Archives of Neurology, 41, 485-490.
  • Bosboom, J.L., Stoffers, D., y Wolters, E.Ch. (2004). Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neural Transmission, 111(10-11), 1303-1315.
  • Bradley, V.A., Welch, J.L., y Dick, D.J. (1989). Visuospatial working memory in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1228-1235.
  • Bruna, O., Roig, C., Junqué, C., Vendrell, P., y Grau-Veciana, J.M. (2000). Relación entre las alteraciones visoespaciales y los parámetros oculomotores en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Psicothema, 12, 187-191.
  • Caballol, N., Martí, M.J., y Tolosa, E. (2007). Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson disease. Movement Disorders, 22, suppl 17, S358-S366.
  • Cooper, J.A., Sagar, H.J., Jordan, N., Harvey, N.S., y Sullivan, E.V. (1991). Cognitive impairment in early, untreated Parkinson’s disease and its relationship to motor disability. Brain, 114(5), 2095-2122.
  • Cronin-Golomb, A., y Braun, A.E. (1997). Visuospatial dysfunction and problem solving in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11(1), 44- 52.
  • Delis, D.C., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E., y Ober, B.A. (1987) California Verbal Learning Test. Research Edition Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.
  • Dujardin, K., Denève, C., Ronval, M., Krystkowiak, P., Humez, C., Destée, A., y Defebvre, L. (2007). Is de Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) a valid means of assessing executive function in Parkinson’s disease? Cortex, 43, 601-606.
  • Emre, M. (2003). What causes mental dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease? Movement and Disorders, 18, Suppl 6, S63-S71.
  • Fahn, S., y Elton, R.L. (1987). Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. En Fahn, S., Marsden, C.D., Goldstein, M., Calne, D.B. (Eds): Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease (pp. 153-163). New York: Macmillan.
  • Flowers, K.A., Pearce, I., y Pearce, J.M. (1984). Recognition memory in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 47(11), 1174-1181.
  • Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., y McHugh, P.R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 49, 189-198.
  • Goldman, W.P., Baty, J.D., Buckles, V.D., Sahrmann, S., y Morris, J.C. (1998). Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Parkinson Disease. Archives of Neurology, 55, 674-680.
  • Goldman-Rakic, P., y Friedman, H.R. (1991). The circuitry of working memory revealed by anatomy and metabolic imaging. En H.S. Levin, H.M. Eisenberg y A.L. Benton (Eds.): Frontal lobe function and dysfunction. New York. Oxford University Press.
  • Gronwall, D.M.A. (1997). Paced Auditory Serial-Addition Task: A measure of recovery from Concussion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 367-373.
  • Higginson, C.I., Wheelock, V.L., Carroll, K.E., y Sigvardt, K.A. (2005). Recognition memory in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia: Evidence inconsistent with the retrieval deficit hypothesis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(4), 516-528.
  • Hoehn, M.M., y Yahr, M.D. (1967). Parkinsonism: Onset, progression and mortality. Neurology (Cleveland), 5, 427-442.
  • Huang, C., Mattis, P., Tang, C., Perrine, K., Carbon, M., y Eidelberg, D. (2007). Metabolic brain networks associated with cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease. Neuroimage, 34(2), 714-723.
  • Hughes, A.J., Daniel, S.E., y Kilford, L. (1992). Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopatic Parkinson’s disease: A clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 55, 181-184.
  • Ivory, S.J., Knight, R.G., Longmore, B.E., y Caradoc-Davies, T. (1999). Verbal memory in non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 37(7), 817-828.
  • Levin, B.E., Llabre, M.M., Reisman, S., Weiner, W.J., Sánchez-Ramos, J., Singer, C., et al. (1991). Visuospatial impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 41(3), 365-369.
  • Malapani, C., Pillon, B., Dubois, B., y Agid, Y. (1994). Impaired simultaneous cognitive task performance in Parkinson’s disease: A dopaminerelated dysfunction. Neurology, 44(2), 319-26.
  • Mesulam, M.M. (2000). Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Muslimovic, D., Post, B., Speelman, J.D., y Schmand, B. (2005). Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease.Neurology, 65(8), 1239-45.
  • Owen, A.M., Iddon, J.L., Hodges, J.R., Summers, B.A., y Robbins, T.W. (1997). Spatial and non-spatial working memory at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 35, 519-32.
  • Petrides, M. (1985). Deficits on conditional associative-learning tasks after frontaland temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 23(5), 601-614.
  • Pillon, B., Deweer, B., Agid, Y., y Dubois, B. (1993). Explicit memory in Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s diseases. Arch. Neurol., 50(4), 374-379.
  • Pillon, B., Ertle, S., Deweer, B., Sarazin, M., Agid, Y., y Dubois, B. (1996). Memory for spatial location is affected in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 34(1), 77-85.
  • Pillon, B., Deweer, B., Vidailhet, M., Bonnet, A.M., Hahan-Barma, V., y Dubois, B. (1998). Is impaired memory for spatial location in Parkinson’s disease domain specific or dependent on ‘strategic’ processes? Neuropsychologia, 36(1), 1-9.
  • Postle, B.R., Jonides, J., Smith, E.E., Corkin, S., y Growdon, J.H. (1997). Spatial, but not object, delayed response is impaired in early Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11, 171-179.
  • Sánchez-Rodríguez, J.L. (2002). Déficit neuropsicológicos en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Relación con variables clínicas. Revista de Neurología, 35(4), 310-317.
  • Sánchez, J.L., Rodríguez, M., y Albuerquerque, T.L. (1995). Evaluación neuropsicológica de la memoria visoespacial inmediata en enfermos de Parkinson. Psicothema, 7(3), 579-586.
  • Schuhfried, G. (1992). Vienna Reaction Unit (manual). Austria: Schuhfried Ges.m.b.H.
  • Sommer, M., Grafman, J., Clark, K., y Hallett, M. (1999). Learning in Parkinson’s disease: Eyeblink conditioning, declarative learning and procedural learning. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 67, 27-34.
  • Stefanova, E.D., Kostic, V.S., Ziropadja, L.J., Ocic, G.G., y Markovic, M. (2001). Declarative memory in early Parkinson’s disease: Serial position learning effects. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 581-591.
  • Stoffers, D., Berendse, H.W., Deijen, J.B., y Wolters, E.Ch. (2003). Deficits on Corsi’s block-tapping task in early stage of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 10, 107-111.
  • Taylor, A.E., y Saint-Cyr, J.A. (1995). The neuropsychology of Parkinson’s disease. Brain and Cognition, 28(3), 281-296.
  • Tröster, A.I., y Fields, J.A. (2005). Frontal cognitive function and memory in Parkinson’s disease: Toward a distinction between prospective and declarative memory impairments. Behavioral Neurology, 8, 59-74.
  • Uekermann, J., Daum, I., Peters, S., Wiebel, B., Przuntek, H., y Muller, T. (2003). Depressed mood and executive dysfunction in early Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 107(5), 341-348.
  • Vingerhoets, G., Vermeule, E., y Santens, P. (2005). Impaired intentional content learning but spared incidental retention of contextual information in non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 43, 675-681.
  • Wechsler, D. (1997a). Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleThird Edition. Administration and Scoring Manual. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, USA.
  • Wechsler, D. (1997b). Wechsler Memory ScaleThird Edition. Technical Manual. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, USA.