Cocaine exposure during pregnancy and postpartum maternal behavior in mice

  1. María del Pilar Santacruz
  2. Rosario Josefa Marrero Quevedo
  3. Juan Manuel Bethencourt Pérez
  4. Miguel Angel Castellano Gil
  5. Wenceslao Peñate Castro
Acta Colombiana de Psicología

ISSN: 1909-9711 0123-9155

Year of publication: 2017

Volume: 20

Issue: 1

Pages: 166-176

Type: Article

DOI: 10.14718/ACP.2017.20.1.8 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Acta Colombiana de Psicología


Maternal cocaine abuse during pregnancy is associated to neglect, abuse, and mother-child bond disruption, which directly affects infant development; therefore, various neurobehavioral problems of children of drug-dependent parents could be attributed to inadequate maternal behavior or prenatal exposure to drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to analyze the effects of chronic cocaine administration during pregnancy on postpartum maternal behavior. To do this, 21 CD1 pregnant female mice were randomly assigned for administration of saline solution and cocaine (25 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg/day), from day 8 to 21 of gestation. After delivery, for 15 minutes a day, during 20 days, the frequency of occurrence of 16 behavioral patterns of maternal behavior was individually recorded, using an ethogram. Cocaine slightly affected maternal behavior frequency, although it may have affected other parameters, such as latency, duration, and sequence of this behavior.

Bibliographic References

  • Ackerman, J. P., Riggins, T., Black, M. M. (2010). A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children. Pediatrics. 125. 554
  • Adinoff, B., Devous, M. D., Williams, M. J., Best, S. E., Harris, T. S., Minhajuddin, A. Z., Cullum, M. (2010). Altered neural cholinergic receptor systems in cocaine-addicted subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 35. 1485
  • Alsina-Llanes, M., Brun, V. D., Olazábal, D. E. (2015). De velopment and expression of maternal behavior in naive female C57BL/6 mice. Developmental Psychobiology. 57. 189-200
  • Angoa-Perez, M., Kuhn, D. M. (2015). Neuronal serotonin in the regulation of maternal behavior in rodents. Neurotransmitter. 2. 1-6
  • Bennett, D., Bendersky, M., Lewis, M. (2007). Preadolescent health risk behavior as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure and gender. Journal of Developmen tal & Behavior Pediatrics. 28. 467
  • Caffrey, M. K., Febo, M. (2014). Cocaine-associated odor cue re-exposure increases blood oxygenation level dependent signal in memory and reward regions of the maternal rat brain. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 134. 167
  • Caldji, C., Diorio, J., Meaney, M. J. (2000). Variations in maternal care in infancy regulate the development of stress reactivity. Biology Psychiatry. 48. 1164
  • Carrera-Guermeur, O. (2007). Apego y Anorexia Nerviosa: manipulación de las experiencias tempranas y desempeño en el procedimiento experimental de anorexia basada en la actividad. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela USC. España.
  • Champagne, F. A., Meaney, M. J. (2007). Transgenerational effects of social environment on variations in maternal care and behavioral response to novelty. Behavioral Neuroscien ce. 121. 1353
  • Champagne, F. A., Francis, D. D., Mar, A., Meaney, M. J. (2003). Variations in maternal care in the rat as a mediating influence for the effects of environment on development. Physiology & Behavior. 79. 359
  • Chaplin, T. M, Visconti, K. J., Molfese, P. J., Susman, E. J., Klein, L. C., Sinha, R., Mayes, L. C. (2014). Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use. Development and Psychopathology. 18. 1-8
  • Colado, M. I., Alguacil, F. (2008). Velázquez, & Farmacología Básica y Clínica. Edit. Médica Panamericana. Buenos Aires.
  • Coleman, L. G., Liu, W., Oguz, I., Styner, M., Crews, F. T. (2014). Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 116. 142
  • Dow-Edwards, D., Iijima, M., Stephenson, S., Jackson, A., Weedon, J. (2014). The effects of prenatal cocaine, post-weaning housing and sex on conditioned place preference in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology. 231. 1543
  • Eiden, R. D., Schuetze, P., Coles, C. D. (2011). Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: direct and moderated associations. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 33. 120
  • Eyler, F. D., Warner, T. D., Behnke, M., Hou, W., Wobie, K., Garvan, C. W. (2009). Executive functioning at ages 5 and 7 years in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Devop-mental Neuroscience. 31. 121
  • Febo, M., Ferris, C. F. (2007). Development of cocaine sensitization before pregnancy affects subsequent maternal retrieval of pups and prefrontal cortical activity during nursing. Neuroscience. 148. 400
  • Frye, C.A., Rhodes, M.E., Raol, Y.H., Brooks-Kayal, A. (2006). Early postnatal stimulation alters pregnance neurosteroids in the hippocampus. Psychopharmacology. 186. 343
  • Hancock, S., Grant, V. (2009). Early maternal separation increases symptoms of activity-based anorexia in male and female rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. 3. 394-406
  • Hertenstein, M. J., Verkamp, J. M., Kerestes, A. M., Holmes, R. M. (2006). The communicative functions of touch in humans and non-humans primates and rats. A review and synthesis of empirical research. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs. 132. 5-94
  • Hess, C. W., Hahn, M. E., Benno, R. H., Schanz, N. (2002). Prenatal cocaine exposure alters maternal retrieval behavior in mice. Behavioral Genetics. 32. 259
  • Jaworski, J., Francis, D., Brommer, C., Morgan, E., Kuhar, M. (2005). Effects of early maternal separation on ethanol intake, GABA receptors and metabolizing enzymes in adult rats. Psychopharmacology. 181. 8-15
  • Johns, J. M., Elliott, D. L., Hofler, V. E., Joyner, P. W., McMurray, M. S., Jarrett, T. M., Haslup, A. M., Middleton, C. L., Elliott, J. C., Walker, C. H. (2005). Cocaine treatment and prenatal environment interact to disrupt intergenerational maternal behavior in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience. 119. 1605
  • Johns, J. M., Noonan, L. R., Li, L., Pedersen, C.A. (1994). Effects of chronic and acute cocaine treatment on the onset of maternal behavior and aggression in Sprague-Dawley rats. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108. 107
  • Johns, J. M., Noonan, L. R., Zimmerman, L. I., Li, L., Pedersen, C. A.. (1997). Effects of short- and long-term withdrawal from gestational cocaine treatment on maternal be havior and aggression in sprague-dawley rats. Development Neurosciences. 19. 368
  • Kinsley, C. H., Turco, D., Bauer, A., Beverly, M., Wellman, J., Graham, A. L. (1994). Cocaine alters the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior in lactating rats. Phar macology Biochemistry and Behavior. 47. 857
  • Kippin, T. E., Campbell, J. C., Ploense, K., Knight, C. P., Bagley, J. (2015). Perinatal Programming of Neurodevelopment. Springer. New York.
  • Kristal, M. B. (2009). The biopsychology of maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. ILAAR Journal. 50. 51-63
  • Lambert, B. L., Bauer, C. R. (2012). Developmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure: a re view. Journal of Perinatology. 32. 819
  • Lester, B. M., Lin, H., Degarmo, D. S., Fisher, P. A., Lagasse, L. L., Levine, T. P., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Bauer, C. R., Hammond, J. A., Whitaker, T. M., Higgins, R. D. (2012). Neurobehavioral disinhibition predicts initiation of substance use in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 126. 80
  • Lester, B. M., Padbury, J. F. (2009). Third pathophysiology of prenatal cocaine exposure. Developmental Neuroscience. 31. 23-35
  • Lippard, E. C., Jarrett, T. M., McMurray, M. S., Zeskind, P. S., Garber, K. A., Zoghby, C. R., Glaze, K., Tate, W., Johns, J. M. (2015). Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: Associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA. Behavioural Brain Research. 278. 176
  • Lucantonio, F., Stalnaker, T. A., Shaham, Y., Niv, Y., Schoen-baum, G. (2012). The impact of orbitofrontal dysfunction on cocaine addiction. Nature Neuroscience. 15. 358
  • Martínez-Raga, J., Knecht, C., Ramírez, N., Szerman, N. (2009). Sistemas de neurotransmisión glutamatérgica y adicción a la cocaína. Progresos en el tratamiento farma cológico. Revista de Psiquiatría del Uruguay. 73. 63-72
  • McMurray, M. S. (2011). A rodent model of cocaine's effect on the mother infant dyad. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • (1993). Resolución No. 008430 de 1993.
  • Minnes, S., Singer, L., Meeyoung, O. M., Miaoping, W., Lang, A., Yoon, S. (2014). Effects of prenatal cocaine/ polydrug exposure on substance use by age 15. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 134. 201
  • Nelson, C. J., Meter, K. E., Walker, C. H., Ayers, A. A., Johns, J. M. (1998). A dose-response study of chronic cocaine on maternal behavior in rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 20. 657
  • Nephew, B., Febo, M. (2012). Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry. Current Neuropharmacology. 10. 53-63
  • (2007). Results from the 2006 Na tional Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings.
  • Olive, M. F., Koenig, H. N., Nannini, M. A., Hodge, C.W. (2001). Stimulation of endorphin neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens by ethanol, cocaine, and amphetamine. The Journal of Neuroscience. 21. 1-5
  • Pereira, M., Ferreira, A. (2015). Perinatal Programming of Neurodevelopment. Springer. New York.
  • Quiñones Jenab, V., Batel, P., Schlussman, S. D., Ho, A, Kreek, M. J. (1997). Cocaine impairs maternal nest building in pregnant rats. Pharmacology Biochemist Behavior. 58. 1009
  • Richardson, G. A., Goldschmidt, L., Larkby, C., Day, N. L. (2013). Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior and growth at 10 years of age. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 40. 1-8
  • Rodríguez-Borrero, E., Rivera-Escalera, F., Candelas, F., Montalvo, J., Muñoz-Miranda, W. J., Walker, J. R., Maldonado-Vlaar, C. S. (2010). Arginine vasopressin gene expression changes within the nucleus accumbens during environment elicited cocaine-conditioned response in rats. Neuropharmacology. 58. 88-101
  • Silverman, M. (1978). Animal Behavior, in the laboratory. Lancet. New York.
  • Sinha, R. (2008). Chronic stress, drug use and vulnerability to addiction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1141. 105
  • Stamatakis, A., Kalpachidou, T., Raftogianni, A., Zografou, E., Tzanou, A., Pondiki, S., Stylianopoulou, F. (2015). Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERa, ERP), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 52. 212
  • Strathearn, L., Mayes, L. C. (2010). Cocaine addiction in mothers: potential effects on maternal care and infant development. Annals of the New York Academic Sciences. 1187. 172
  • Szyf, M. (2014). Nongenetic inheritance and transgenerational epigenetics. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 21. 134
  • Téllez-Mosquera, J., Cote-Menéndez, M. (2005). Efectos toxicológicos y neuropsiquiátricos producidos por consumo de cocaína. Revista Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 53. 10-26
  • Toth, M. (2015). Mechanisms of non-genetic inheritance and psychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 40. 129
  • Wang, Z., Storm, D.R. (2011). Maternal behavior is impaired in female mice lacking type 3-adenylylcyclase. Neuropsy-chopharmacology. 36. 772
  • Wickham, M. E., Senthilselvan, A., Wild, T. C., Hoglund, W L., Colman, I. (2015). Maternal depressive symptoms during childhood and risky adolescent health behaviors. Pediatrics. 135. 59-67
  • Williams, S. K., Johns, J. M. (2014). Prenatal and gestational cocaine exposure: Effects on the oxytocin system and social behavior with implications for addiction. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 119. 10-21
  • Williams, S. K., Lauder, J. M., Johns, J. M. (2011). Prenatal cocaine disrupts serotonin signaling-dependent behaviors: Implications for sex differences, early stress and prenatal SSRI exposure. Current Neuropharmacology. 9. 478-511