Mindfulness and balanced time perspectivepredictive model of psychological well-being and gender differences in college students

  1. Andrea Fuentes 1
  2. Cristián Oyanadel 1
  3. Philip Zimbardo 2
  4. Melissa González Loyola 1
  5. Lening A. Olivera Figueroa 3
  6. Wenceslao Peñate Castro 4
  1. 1 Universidad de Concepción
    info

    Universidad de Concepción

    Concepción, Chile

    ROR https://ror.org/0460jpj73

  2. 2 Stanford University
    info

    Stanford University

    Stanford, Estados Unidos

    ROR https://ror.org/00f54p054

  3. 3 Yale University
    info

    Yale University

    New Haven, Estados Unidos

    ROR https://ror.org/03v76x132

  4. 4 Universidad de La Laguna
    info

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España

    ROR https://ror.org/01r9z8p25

Journal:
EJIHPE: European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education

ISSN: 2174-8144

Year of publication: 2022

Volume: 12

Issue: 3

Pages: 306-318

Type: Article

DOI: 10.3390/EJIHPE12030022 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

Abstract

Background: The aims of the study were to establish an adjustment model to analyze the relationship among mindfulness, balanced time perspective (BTP) and psychological well-being (PWB) in college students and to explore gender differences among the variables. Method: The sample consisted of 380 college students, 220 women and 160 men, uniformly distributed according to the university’s faculties. Results: The results indicate that the synergy between mindfulness and BTP predicts the variance of PWB by 55%. Regarding gender differences, it was found that women have a greater tendency towards Past Positive than men and men a higher tendency towards Present Hedonistic than women. In addition, in the group of women, a stronger relationship was found among the variables and, consequently, a greater predictive value for PWB (58%), displaying an enhanced disposition to high PWB compared to men. Conclusions: Together, mindfulness and BTP promote optimal psychological functioning and alleviate or reduce discomfort. Thus, their promotion and training in universities is especially important given the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students.

Bibliographic References

  • Antúnez, Z.; Vinet, E.V. Problemas de salud mental en estudiantes de una universidad regional chilena. Rev. Médica De Chile 2013, 141, 209–216.
  • Baader, T.; Rojas, C.; Molina, J.; Gotelli, V.; Alamo, C.; Fierro, C.; Venezian, S.; Dittus, P. Diagnóstico de la prevalencia de trastornos de la salud mental en estudiantes universitarios y los factores de riesgo emocionales asociados. Rev. Chil. De Neuro-Psiquiatr. 2014, 52, 167–176.
  • Baer, R.A.; Lykins, E.L.; Peters, J. Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in long-term meditators and matched nonmeditators. J. Posit. Psychol. 2012, 7, 230–238.
  • Baer, R.A.; Smith, G.T.; Hopkins, J.; Krietemeyer, J.; Toney, L. Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness. Assessment 2006, 13, 27–45.
  • Boniwell, I.; Osin, E.; Linley, P.A.; Ivanchenko, G.V. A question of balance: Time perspective and well-being in British and Russian samples. J. Posit. Psychol. 2010, 5, 24–40.
  • Boniwell, I.; Zimbardo, P. Balancing one’s time perspective in pursuit of optimal functioning. In Positive Psychology in Practice; Linley, A., Joseph, S., Eds.; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2004; pp. 105–168.
  • Brown, K.W.; Ryan, R.M. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2003, 84, 822–848.
  • Brown, K.W.; Ryan, R.M.; Creswell, J.D. Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects. Psychol. Inq. 2007, 18, 211–237.
  • Chiodelli, R.; Mello, L.T.N.; Jesus, S.N.; Andretta, I. Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention on emotional regulation and levels of mindfulness in senior students. Psicol. Reflexão E Crítica 2018, 31, 1–10.
  • Chraif, M.; Dumitru, D. Gender Differences on Wellbeing and Quality of Life at Young Students at Psychology. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2015, 180, 1579–1583.
  • Cova, F.; Alvial, W.; Aro, M.; Bonifetti, A.; Hernández, M.; Rodríguez, C. Problemas de Salud Mental en Estudiantes de la Universidad de Concepción. Ter. Psicológica 2007, 25, 105–112.
  • D’Alessio, M.; Guarino, A.; De Pascalis, V.; Zimbardo, P.G. Testing Zimbardo’s Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI)—Short Form. Time Soc. 2003, 12, 333–347.
  • De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Tyssen, R.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J.H.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A. Mindfulness training for stress management: A randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students. BMC Med. Educ. 2013, 13, 1–11.
  • Díaz, D.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, R.; Blanco, A.; Moreno-Jiménez, B.; Gallardo, I.; Valle, C.; Dierendonck, D. Adaptación española de las escalas de bienestar psicológico de Ryff. Psicothema 2006, 18, 572–577.
  • Drake, L.; Duncan, E.; Sutherland, F.; Abernethy, C.; Henry, C. Time Perspective and Correlates of Wellbeing. Time Soc. 2008, 17, 47–61.
  • Dvoˇráková, K.; Kishida, M.; Li, J.; Elavsky, S.; Broderick, P.C.; Agrusti, M.R.; Greenberg, M.T. Promoting healthy transition to college through mindfulness training with first-year college students: Pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Am. Coll. Health 2016, 65, 259–267.
  • Ely, R.; Mercurio, A. Time perspective and autobiographical memory: Individual and gender differences in experiencing time and remembering the past. Time Soc. 2011, 20, 375–400.
  • Fumero, A.; Peñate, W.; Oyanadel, C.; Porter, B. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Anxiety Disorders. A Systematic Meta-Review. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10, 52.
  • Garcia, D.; Sailer, U.; Al Nima, A.; Archer, T. Questions of time and affect: A person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being. PeerJ 2016, 4, e1826.
  • Greene, B.A.; Debacker, T.K. Gender and Orientations Toward the Future: Links to Motivation. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 2004, 16, 91–120.
  • Griffin, E.; Wildbur, D. The role of balanced time perspective on student well-being and mental health: A mixed-methods study. Ment. Health Prev. 2020, 18, 200181.
  • Hanley, A.; Warner, A.; Garland, E.L. Associations Between Mindfulness, Psychological Well-Being, and Subjective Well-Being with Respect to Contemplative Practice. J. Happiness Stud. 2015, 16, 1423–1436.
  • Hanley, A.W.; Garland, E.L. Clarity of mind: Structural equation modeling of associations between dispositional mindfulness, self-concept clarity and psychological well-being. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2017, 106, 334–339.
  • Jofré, I.; Oyanadel, C.; Peñate-Castro, W. Versión breve del Inventario de Perspectiva Temporal de Zimbardo para población Chilena: Una comparación internacional. Univ. Psychol. 2021, 20, 1–10.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. Mindfulness. Mindfulness 2015, 6, 1481–1483.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. Vivir con plenitud las crisis. In Cómo Utilizar la Sabiduría del Cuerpo y de la Mente Para Afrontar el Estrés, el Dolor y la Enfermedad; Editorial Kairós: Barcelona, Spain, 2003.
  • Katz, D.; Toner, B.B. A Systematic Review of Gender Differences in the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Treatments for Substance Use Disorders. Mindfulness 2012, 4, 318–331.
  • Kazakina, E. Time perspective of older adults: Research and clinical practice. In International Studies in Time Perspective; Paixão, M., da Silva, J., Ortuño, V., Cordeiro, P., Eds.; Coimbra University Press: Coimbra, Portugal, 2013; pp. 71–86.
  • Keng, S.-L.; Smoski, M.J.; Robins, C.J. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2011, 31, 1041–1056.
  • Klainin-Yobas, P.; Ramirez, D.; Fernandez, Z.; Sarmiento, J.; Thanoi, W.; Ignacio, J.; Lau, Y. Examining the predicting effect of mindfulness on psychological well-being among undergraduate students: A structural equation modelling approach. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2016, 91, 63–68.
  • Li, R.; Kao, C.; Wu, Y. Gender differences in psychological well-being: Tests of factorial invariance. Qual. Life Res. 2015, 24, 2577–2581.
  • Lipson, S.K.; Lattie, E.G.; Eisenberg, D. Increased Rates of Mental Health Service Utilization by U.S. College Students: 10-Year Population-Level Trends (2007–2017). Psychiatr. Serv. 2019, 70, 60–63.
  • MacDonald, H.Z.; Baxter, E.E. Mediators of the Relationship Between Dispositional Mindfulness and Psychological Well-Being in Female College Students. Mindfulness 2016, 8, 398–407.
  • Marais, G.; Lantheaume, S.; Fiault, R.; Shankland, R. Mindfulness-Based Programs Improve Psychological Flexibility, Mental Health, Well-Being, and Time Management in Academics. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10, 1035–1050.
  • Marks, A.D.; Sobanski, D.J.; Hine, D.W. Do Dispositional Rumination and/or Mindfulness Moderate the Relationship Between Life Hassles and Psychological Dysfunction in Adolescents? Aust. N. Zldn. J. Psychiatry 2010, 44, 831–838.
  • McKay, T.; Walker, B.R. Mindfulness, self-compassion and wellbeing. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2021, 168, 110412.
  • Mello, Z.R.; Worrell, F.C. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents. J. Educ. Gift. 2006, 29, 271–289.
  • Mettler, J.; Carsley, D.; Joly, M.; Heath, N.L. Dispositional Mindfulness and Adjustment to University. J. Coll. Stud. Retent. Res. Theory Pr. 2017, 21, 38–52.
  • Mostowik, J.; Rutkowski, K.; Ostrowski, T.; Mielim ˛aka, M. Time Perspective among Patients Diagnosed with Neurotic and Personality Disorders—An Exploratory, Clinical Study. Timing Time Percept. 2021, 9, 1–20.
  • Muro, A.; Feliu-Soler, A.; Castellà, J.; Deví, J.; Soler, J. Does Time Perspective Predict Life Satisfaction? A Study Including Mindfulness as a Measure of Time Experience in a Sample of Catalan Students. Mindfulness 2017, 8, 655–663.
  • Olivera-Figueroa, L.; Asthana, S.; Odisho, N.; Ortiz Velez, A.; Cuebas, K.; Lopez, N. Emerging cross-cultural research: The role of time perspective on well-being, life satisfaction and mindfulness. Adv. Psychol. Res. 2016, 113, 1–59.
  • Olivera-Figueroa, L.A.; Juster, R.-P.; Morin-Major, J.K.; Marin, M.-F.; Lupien, S.J. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults. Biol. Psychol. 2015, 111, 90–99.
  • Oyanadel, C.; Buela-Casal, G. La percepción del tiempo: Influencias en la salud física y mental. Univ. Psychol. 2011, 10, 149–161.
  • Oyanadel, C.; Buela-Casal, G. Percepción del tiempo y salud: La influencia del perfil temporal equilibrado (BTP) y el perfil temporal negativo (NTP) en la salud física y mental. Rev. Argent. De Clínica Psicológica 2017, 26, 296–306.
  • Oyanadel, C.; Buela-Casal, G.; Araya, T.; Olivares, C.; Vega, H. Percepción del tiempo: Resultados de una intervención grupal breve para el cambio del perfil temporal. Suma Psicológica 2014, 21, 1–7.
  • Oyanadel, C.; Buela-Casal, G.; Pérez-Fortis, A. Propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Orientación Temporal de Zimbardo en una muestra chilena. Ter. Psicológica 2014, 32, 47–55.
  • Oyanadel, C.; Carrasco-Correa, H.; Latorre-Nanjarí, J.; Peñate-Castro, W.; Sepúlveda-Queipul, C. Reduciendo la ideación suicida en adolescentes con terapia de perspectiva temporal. Un estudio experimental. Acta Colomb. De Psicol. 2021, 24, 63–71.
  • Ramler, T.R.; Tennison, L.R.; Lynch, J.; Murphy, P. Mindfulness and the College Transition: The Efficacy of an Adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention in Fostering Adjustment among First-Year Students. Mindfulness 2015, 7, 179–188.
  • Räsänen, P.; Muotka, J.; Lappalainen, R. Examining mediators of change in wellbeing, stress, and depression in a blended, Internet-based, ACT intervention for university students. Internet Interv. 2020, 22, 100343.
  • Rönnlund, M.; Koudriavtseva, A.; Germundsjö, L.; Eriksson, T.; Åström, E.; Carelli, M.G. Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence. Mindfulness 2019, 10, 1579–1591.
  • Ryan, R.M.; Deci, E.L. On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2001, 52, 141–166.
  • Ryff, C.D. Beyond Ponce de Leon and Life Satisfaction: New Directions in Quest of Successful Ageing. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 1989, 12, 35–55.
  • Ryff, C.D. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 1989, 57, 1069–1081.
  • Ryff, C.D.; Keyes, C.L.M. The structure of psychological well-being revisited. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 1995, 69, 719–727.
  • Ryff, C.D.; Singer, B.H. Know Thyself and Become What You Are: A Eudaimonic Approach to Psychological Well-Being. J. Happiness Stud. 2008, 9, 13–39.
  • Salari, N.; Hosseinian-Far, A.; Jalali, R.; Vaisi-Raygani, A.; Rasoulpoor, S.; Mohammadi, M.; Rasoulpoor, S.; Khaledi-Paveh, B. Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Glob. Health 2020, 16, 57.
  • Schmidt, C.; Vinet, E.V. Atención plena: Validación del Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) en estudiantes universitarios chilenos. Ter. Psicológica 2015, 33, 93–102.
  • Seema, R.; Sircova, A. Mindfulness—A Time Perspective? Estonian Study. Balt. J. Psychol. 2013, 14, 4–21.
  • Shapiro, S.L.; Oman, D.; Thoresen, C.E.; Plante, T.; Flinders, T. Cultivating mindfulness: Effects on well-being. J. Clin. Psychol. 2008, 64, 840–862.
  • Stolarski, M.; Bitner, J.; Zimbardo, P.G. Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards. Time Soc. 2011, 20, 346–363.
  • Stolarski, M.; Vowinckel, J.; Jankowski, K.S.; Zajenkowski, M. Mind the balance, be contented: Balanced time perspective mediates the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2016, 93, 27–31.
  • Stolarski, M.; Zajenkowski, M.; Jankowski, K.S.; Szymaniak, K. Deviation from the balanced time perspective: A systematic review of empirical relationships with psychological variables. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2020, 156, 109772.
  • Zambianchi, M. The relevance of time perspective for the eudaimonic well-being in the emerging adulthood. In Well-Being in Education Systems; Castelli, L., Marcionetti, J., Plata, A., Ambrosetti, A., Eds.; Hogrefe: Göttingen, Germania, 2019; pp. 98–103.
  • Zimbardo, P.; Boyd, J. Putting time in perspective. A valid, reliable individual-differences. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 1999, 23, 1007–1023.
  • Zimbardo, P.; Boyd, J. The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time that will Change Your Life; Simon and Schuster: New York, NY, USA, 2008.
  • Zimbardo, P.G.; Keough, K.A.; Boyd, J.N. Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. Pers. Individ. Differ. 1997, 23, 1007–1023.