Estereotipos de género y variables vocacionales en alumnas de educación secundaria

  1. Lidia Esther Santana Vega 1
  2. Zuleica Ruiz-Alfonso 1
  3. Luis Feliciano-García 1
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España


Revista de educación

ISSN: 0034-8082

Year of publication: 2023

Issue Title: Construcción de políticas y generación de conocimiento en educación

Issue: 400

Pages: 265-294

Type: Article

DOI: 10.4438/1988-592X-RE-2023-400-578 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Revista de educación


Gender stereotypes are at the root of gender inequalities in education and employment. These stereotypes affect adolescent girls' academic performance, interests, behaviours and career choices. The aims of the study are: a) to examine whether there are differences in career decision self-efficacy, career adaptability and clarity of life design of adolescent girls according to their gender stereotypes; b) to introduce a model with the independent variable “gender stereotype” to understand the relationship between the analyzed variables. The study involved 1,012 female students in the 3rd and 4th years of secondary education. Data collection was carried out using the Academic and Vocational Guidance Questionnaire. Correlation analyses and parametric tests were carried out; a structural equation model was run to understand the relationships between variables and to test a hypothetical model predicting the effect of gender stereotypes. Results showed that girls with high gender stereotypes have lower scores on career decision-making self-efficacy, career adaptability and clarity of life design than girls with low stereotypes. A parsimonious model was constructed to fit the data, in which adolescent girls' stereotypes predicted career decision-making self-efficacy, and in turn self-efficacy predicted career adaptability and clarity of life design. The improvement of these vocational variables in adolescent female students requires a critical analysis of the beliefs that underlie gender stereotypes; an analysis that allows them to become aware of the socio-cultural nature of these stereotypes, promote their deconstruction and empower them vocationally.

Bibliographic References

  • Alnıaçık, A., Gökşen, F., & Yükseker, D. (2019). School to work or school to home? An analysis of women's vocational education in Turkey as a path to employment. Gender and Education, 31(8), 1040-1056.
  • Álvarez, M. (Coord.), Bisquerra, R., Espín, J., & Rodríguez, S. (2007). La madurez para la carrera en la Educación Secundaria. Evaluación e intervención. EOS.
  • Babarović, T. (2016). Vocational development in adolescence: Career construction, career decision-making dificulties and career adaptability of croatian high school students. Primenjena Psihologija, 9, 429–448.
  • Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72(1), 187–206. https://doi. org/10.1111/1467-8624.00273
  • Betz, N. E., & Schifano, R. S. (2000). Evaluation of an intervention to increase realistic self-efficacy and interests in college women. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 56(1), 35–52.
  • Blanco, A. (2009). El modelo cognitivo social de desarrollo de la carrera. Revisión de más de una década de investigación empírica. Revista de Educación, 350, 423–445.
  • Blažev, M., Karabegović, M., Burušić, J., & Selimbegović, L. (2017). Predicting gender-STEM stereotyped beliefs among boys and girls from prior school achievement and interest in STEM school subjects. Social Psychology of Education, 20(4), 831-847. s11218-017-9397-7
  • Bouchey, H. A., & Harter, S. (2005). Reflected appraisals, academic selfperceptions, and Math/Science performance during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 673–686. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-0663.97.4.673
  • Brown, C. (2019). Sexualized gender stereotypes predict girls’ academic self-efficacy and motivation across middle school. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 43(6), 523-529. https://doi. org/10.1177/0165025419862361
  • Buxarrais Estrada, M. R., & Valdivielso Gómez, S. (2021). La perspectiva feminista en la educación y sus debates actuales. Teoría de la Educación. Revista Interuniversitaria, 33(2), 129–147. https://doi. org/10.14201/teri.25923
  • Carbonero, M. A., & Merino, E. (2002). La escala de autoeficacia vocacional. Desarrollo, análisis y aplicaciones del instrumento. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 14, 99-114.
  • Cepero, A.B. (2009). Las preferencias profesionales y vocacionales del alumnado de secundaria y formación profesional específica. Unpublished PhD thesis. Granada: Universidad de Granada. Retrieved from
  • Chan, K., Uy, M.. Ho, M., Sam, Y., Chernyshenko, O., & Yu, K. (2015). Comparing two career adaptability measures for career construction theory: relations with boundaryless mindset and protean career attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 22–31. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.11.006
  • Creed, P., Patton, W., & Prideaux, L-A. (2006). Causal Relationship Between Career Indecision and Career Decision-Making Self- Efficacy. Journal of Career Development, 33(1), 47-65. https://doi. org/10.1177/0894845306289535
  • Crites, J.O., & Savickas, M. (1996). Revision of the Career Maturity Inventory. Journal of Career, 4(2), 131-138.https://doi. org/10.1177/106907279600400202
  • Dinella, L. M., Fulcher, M., & Weisgram, E. S. (2014). Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(3), 493–504. s10508-013-0234-6
  • Dostanić, J., Suvajdžić, K., & Krpović–Bojanić, Ž. (2021). Decision‐Making Styles, Career Decision Self‐Efficacy, and Career Adaptability Among High School Students. The Career development quarterly, 69 (1),.63- 77.
  • Duffy, R.D. Douglass, R.P., & Autin, K.L. (2015). Career adaptability and academic satisfaction: Examining work volition and self-efficacy as mediators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 90, 46-54. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.07.007
  • Dunlap, S.T., & Barth, J.M. (2019). Career Stereotypes and Identities: Implicit Beliefs and Major Choice for College Women and Men in STEM and Female-Dominated Fields. Sex Roles, 81, 548–560. https://
  • Ecless, J. (2011). Gendered educational and occupational choices: Applying the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. International Journal of Behavioral Development 35(3), 195-201.
  • Ellemers, N. (2018). Gender Stereotypes. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 69, 275–98.
  • Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. Guilford Press.
  • Ehrtmann, L., Wolter, I., & Hannover, B. (2019). The interrelatedness of gender-stereotypical interest profiles and students’ gender-role orientation, gender, and reasoning abilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-15.
  • García, B., Ramos-Pardo, F. J., & Sánchez-Antolín, P. (2017). Análisis de las motivaciones, apoyos y dificultades de mujeres participantes en cursos de formación ocupacional. Revista Complutense de Educación, 28(3), 861–873.
  • García-Cueto, E., Rodriguez-Díaz, F., Bringas-Molleda, C. López Cepero, J. Paino-Quesada, S. et al. (2015). Development of the Gender Role Attitudes Scale (GRAS) amongst young Spanish people. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15, 61-69. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2014.10.004
  • Ginevra, M.C. & Nota, L. (2017). Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 45(3) 312-327. doi: 10.1080/03069885.2015.1063584
  • Hadjar, A., & Aeschlimann, B. (2015). Gender stereotypes and gendered vocational aspirations among Swiss secondary school students. Educational Research, 57(1), 22–42. 81.2014.983719
  • Hardin, E. E., & Longhurst, M. O. (2016). Understanding the gender gap: Social cognitive changes during an introductory stem course. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(2), 233–239. cou0000119 Haro, B., Beranuy, M., Vega, M.A., Calvo, F., & Carbonell, X. (2022).
  • Uso problemático del móvil y diferencias de género en formación profesional [Problematic smartphone use and gender differences in vocational education and training]. Educación XX1, 25(2), 271-290.
  • Hartung, P., & Cadaret, M. (2017). Career Adaptability: Changing Self and Situation for Satisfaction and Success. En K. Maree (Ed.), Psychology of Career Adaptability, Employability and Resilience (pp. 15-28). Springer International Publishing.
  • Heilman, M. (2015). Gender stereotypes: Impediments to women’s career progress. In I. Welpe, P. Brosi, L. Ritzehöfer, & T. Schwarzmüller (Eds.), Auswhal von Männern und Frauen als Führungskräfte. Perspektiven aus Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft, Medien und Politik (pp. 73–84). https://
  • Hirschi, A. (2009). Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 145-155. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.01.002
  • European Institute for Gender Equality (2020). Gender Equality Index 2020. Digitalisation and the future of work. EIGE
  • Jang, H., Pak, S., & Lee, D. (2019). Meta-Analysis: The role of race/ethnicity and gender in career choice. Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling, 9(2), 119-135.
  • Jasko, K., Dukala, K. & Szastok, M. (2019). Focusing on gender similarities increases female students’ motivation to participate in STEM. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 49(8), 473-487. jasp.12598
  • Jo, H., Y-A, Ra., Lee, J., & Kim, W. (2016). Impact of dysfunctional career thoughts on career decision self-efficacy and vocational identity. The Career Development Quarterly, 64(4), 333-344. https://doi. org/10.1002/cdq.12069
  • Kenny, D.A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D.B. (2014). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research.
  • Kessels, U., Heyder, A., Latsch, M., & Hannover, B. (2014). How gender differences in academic engagement relate to students’ gender identity. Educational Research, 56(2), 220-229. 881.2014.898916
  • Klehe, U. C., Fasbender, U., & van der Horst, A. (2021). Going full circle: Integrating research on career adaptation and proactivity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 126, 103526. jvb.2020.103526
  • Koenig, A.M. (2018) Comparing Prescriptive and Descriptive Gender Stereotypes About Children, Adults, and the Elderly. Front. Psychol. 9:1086. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01086
  • Kollmayer, M., Schober, B., & Spiel, C. (2018). Gender stereotypes in education: Development, consequences, and interventions. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15(4), 361-377. 10.1080/17405629.2016.1193483
  • Lam, M. & Santos, A. (2018). The impact of a college career intervention program on career decision self-efficacy, career indecision, and decision-making difficulties. Journal of Career Assesment, 26(3), 425- 444.
  • Leaper, C., Farkas, T. & Brown, C. (2012). Adolescent girls' experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/ science and English. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 268- 282.
  • Lomelí-Parga, A., López-Padilla, M., & Valenzuela-González, J. (2016). Autoestima, motivación e inteligencia emocional: Tres factores influyentes en el diseño exitoso de un proyecto de vida de jóvenes estudiantes de educación media. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(2), 1–22.
  • Lozano, S. (2006). Validación de un modelo de medida de la autoeficacia en la toma de decisión de la carrera. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 24(2), 423-442. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.
  • Makarova E, Aeschlimann B., & Herzog W. (2019) The gender gap in STEM fields: The impact of the gender stereotype of math and science on secondary students’ career aspirations. Frontiers in Education 4(60), 1–11.
  • Marcionetti, J., & Rossier, J. (2019). A Longitudinal Study of Relations Among Adolescents’ Self-Esteem, General Self-Efficacy, Career Adaptability, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Career Development, 48(4), 475-490.
  • Maree, J., & Twigge, A. (2016). Career and self-construction of emerging adults: The value of life designing. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.02041
  • Martínez-Marín, M. D. (2018). Negative and positive attributes of gender stereotypes and gender self-attributions : A study with Spanish adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 1–21. s12187-018-9569-9
  • Martínez, A., Castro, M., Lucena, M., & Zurita, F. (2016). Election of degree and expectations of results of teenagers from Granada. Revista Española de Orientacion y Psicopedagia, 26(3), 63-77. doi: 10.5944/ reop.vol.26.num.3.2015.16401
  • McGuire; L., Mulvey, K., Goff, E., Irvin, M., Winterbottom, M., Fields, G., Hartstone-Rose, A., & Rutland, A. (2020). STEM gender stereotypes from early childhood through adolescence at informal science centers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 67: 101109. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.appdev.2020.101109
  • Melendro, M., De-Juanas, A., & Rodríguez, A. E. (2017). Déficits en la intervención socioeducativa con familias de adolescentes en riesgo de exclusión. Bordón, 69(1), 123–138. Bordon.2016.48596
  • Merino-Tejedor, E., Hontangas, P. M., & Boada-Grau, J. (2016). Career adaptability and its relation to self-regulation, career construction, and academic engagement among Spanish university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 92-102. jvb.2016.01.005
  • Migunde, Q., Othuon, L., & Mbagaya, C. (2015) Career maturity and career decision making status of secondary school students in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Educational Research, 6(3) 50-54. https://doi. org/10.14303/er.2015.023
  • Miller, D. I., Eagly, A. H., & Linn, M. C. (2015). Women’s representation in science predicts national gender-science stereotypes: Evidence from 66 nations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 631–644.
  • Moè, A., Hausmann, M., & Hirnstein, M. 2020). Gender stereotypes and incremental beliefs in STEM and non-STEM students in three countries: relationships with performance in cognitive tasks. Psychological Research.
  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.
  • Navarro, R., Larrañaga, E., & Yubero, S. (2015). Gender identity, gendertyped personality traits and school bullying : Victims, bullies and bully-victims. Child Indicators Research, 9(1), 1–20. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12187-015-9300-z
  • Negru-Subtirica, O., & Pop, E. I. (2016). Longitudinal links between career adaptability and academic achievement in adolescence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 163-170. jvb.2016.02.006
  • Oberts, U., Chamarro, A., & Renau, V. (2016). Estereotipos de género 2.0: Auto-representaciones de adolescentes en Facebook. Comunicar, 24, 81–90.
  • Olsson, M., & Martiny, S. E. (2018). Does exposure to counterstereotypical role models influence girls’ and women’s gender stereotypes and career choices? A review of social psychological research. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1–15.
  • Picho, K., & Schmader, T. (2018). When do gender stereotypes impair Math performance? A study of stereotype threat among Ugandan adolescents. Sex Roles, 78(3–4), 295–306. s11199-017-0780-9
  • Plante, I., O’Keefe, P., Aronson, J., Fréchette‑Simard, C., & Goulet, M. (2019). The interest gap: how gender stereotype endorsement about abilities predicts diferences in academic interests. Social Psychology of Education, 22(1), 227–245
  • Ramaci, T., Pellerone, M., Ledda, C., Presti, G., Squatrito, V., & Rapisarda, V. (2017). Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 10, 109–117. S134132
  • Rudolph, C., Lavigne, K., Katz, I., & Zacherb, H. (2017). Career adaptability: A meta-analysis of relationships with measures of adaptivity, adapting responses, and adaptation results. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 17–34.
  • Sánchez-García, M. F., & Suárez-Ortega, M. (2021). Professional success and satisfaction in the career development: Gender patterns. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 39(1), 31-48. rie.374121
  • Sánchez, M., Suarez, M., Manzano, N., Oliveros, L., Lozano, S. Fernádez, B., et al. (2011). Gender stereotypes and work values of Spanish students. Revista de Educación, 355, 331-354. doi: 10-4438/1988-592X-RE-2011- 355-027
  • Santana-Vega, L.E, Gómez-Muñoz, A., & Feliciano-García, L. (2019a). Adolescents problematic mobile phone use, Fear of Missing Out and family communication. [Uso problemático del móvil, fobia a sentirse excluido y comunicación familiar de los adolescentes]. Comunicar, 59, 39-47.
  • Santana-Vega, L. E., Medina-Sánchez, P. C., Feliciano-García, L. (2019b). Proyecto de vida y toma de decisiones del alumnado de Formación Profesional. Revista Complutense de Educación, 30(2), 423-440,
  • Santana-Vega, L. E., Feliciano-García, L., & Jiménez-Llanos, A. B. (2012). Toma de decisiones y género en el Bachillerato. Revista de Educación, 359, 357-387, doi: 10.4438/1988-592X-RE-2011-359-098
  • Santana-Vega, L. E., Feliciano-García, L., & Jiménez-Llanos, A. B. (2016). Apoyo familiar percibido y proyecto de vida del alumnado inmigrante de Educación Secundaria. Revista de Educación, 372, 35-62, doi: 10.4438/1988-592X-RE-2015-372-314
  • Santana-Vega, L. E., Feliciano-García, L. A., & Santana Lorenzo, J. A. (2012). Análisis del proyecto de vida del alumnado de educación secundaria. REOP-Revista Española de Orientación y Psicopedagogía, 23(1), 26– 38.
  • Santos, M. A. Lorenzo, M., Priegue D., & Torrado, J. (2020). Variaciones en los hábitos de estudio en función del género y origen étnicocultural del alumnado y su relación con el rendimiento escolar. Revista Complutense de Educación, 31(2), 163-171, https://dx.doi. org/10.5209/rced.62000
  • Savickas, M. (2013). Career construction Theory and Practice. In S. Brown y B. Lent (Eds.), Career Development and Counseling. Putting Theory and Research to work (pp. 42-70). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Savickas, M. L. (2016). Reflection and reflexivity during life-design interventions: Comments on Career Construction Counseling. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 97, 84–89. jvb.2016.09.001
  • Savickas, M.L., & Porfeli, E.J. (2011). Revision of the Career Maturity Inventory: The Adaptability Form. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(4), 355-374.
  • Savickas, M., & Porfeli, E. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 661-673. jvb.2012.01.011
  • Savickas, M., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J., Duarte, M., Guichard, J., Soresi, S., Van Esbroek, R., & Van Vianen, A. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 239–250. jvb.2009.04.004
  • Sawyer, S., Azzopardi, P., Wickremarathne, D., & Patton, G. (2018). The age of adolescence. Child and Adolescent Health, 2(3), 223-228.
  • Schmitt, T. A. (2011). Current methodological considerations in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(4), 304–321. https://doi. org/10.1177/0734282911406653
  • Selimbegovic, L., Karabegovic, M., Blažev, M., & Burušić, J. (2019). The independent contributions of gender stereotypes and gender identification in predicting primary school pupils' expectancies of success in STEM fields. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10) 1614-1632.
  • Shin, J.Y., Steger, M.F., & Lee, K.H. (2014). Major incongruence and career development among American and South Korean college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(3), 433–450. https://doi. org/10.1177/1069072713498485.
  • Shin, Y., Lee, E.S., & Seo, Y. (2019). Does traditional stereotyping of career as male affect college women’s, but not college men’s, career decision self-efficacy and ultimately their career adaptability? Sex Roles, 81, 74–86.
  • Schuster, C., & Martiny, S. E. (2017). Not feeling good in STEM: Effects of stereotype activation and anticipated effect on women’s career aspirations. Sex Roles, 76(1-2), 40–55. 016-0665-3
  • Smith, S. (2014). Limitations to equality: Gender stereotypes and social change. Juncture, 21, 144–150. 5876.2014.00795.x
  • Solbes-Canales, I., Valverde-Montesinos, S., & Herranz-Hernandez, P. (2020). Socialization of Gender Stereotypes Related to Attributes and Professions Among Young Spanish School-Aged Children. Frontiers in Psychology, 11:609.
  • Steele, J., & Barlin, J. (1996). Influence of maternal gender-role beliefs and role satisfaction on daughters' vocational interests. Sex Roles, 34(9-10), 637–648
  • Struthers, K., & Strachan, G. (2019). Attracting women into maledominated trades: Views of young women in Australia. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 6(1), 1-19.
  • Tellhed, U., Bäckström, M., & Björklund, F. (2017). Will I fit in and do well? The importance of social belongingness and self-efficacy for explaining gender differences in interest in STEM and heed majors. Sex Roles, 77(1-2), 86-96.
  • Tolentino, L., Garcia, P., Lu, V., Restubog, S., Bordia, P., & Plewa, C. (2014). Career adaptation: The relation of adaptability to goal orientation, proactive personality, and career optimism. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(1), 39-48.
  • Villanueva-Blasco, V., & Grau-Alberola, E. (2019). Gender and age differences in the internalization of gender stereotypes in early and mid adolescence. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 17(47),107-128. doi: 10.25115/ejrep.v17i47.2184
  • Viola, M.M., Muso, P., Ongoglia, S., Lo Coco, A., & Inguglia, C. (2017). Relationships between career indecision, search for work self-efficacy, and psychological well-being in italian never-employed young adults. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 231-250. https://doi:10.5964/ ejop.v13i2.1277
  • Zhang, J., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2021). Career-Related Parental Support, Vocational Identity, and Career Adaptability: Interrelationships and Gender Differences. The Career Developmnet Quarterly, 69(2), 130- 144.
  • Zhao, F., Zhang, Y., Alterman, V., Zhang, B., & Yu, G. (2018). Can Mathgender stereotypes be reduced? A theory-based intervention program with adolescent girls. Current Psychology, 37(3), 612–624. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12144-016-9543-y