Rendimiento académico y factores sociofamiliares de riesgo. Variables personales que moderan su influencia

  1. Daniel Rodríguez Rodríguez
  2. Remedios Guzmán Rosquete
Revista:
Perfiles educativos

ISSN: 0185-2698

Ano de publicación: 2019

Volume: 41

Número: 164

Páxinas: 118-134

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.22201/IISUE.24486167E.2019.164.58925 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openAcceso aberto editor

Resumo

Abstract This study’s principle objective is to weigh the importance of social-family risk factors to the students’ academic performance and how the students’ personal variables can mediate their negative impact on academic achievement. To that end, a literature review of the main databases was conducted on the issues analyzed. It posits the importance of risk-factor accumulation theory, and analyzes the relationship between both socioeconomic levels and family related variables and the academic performance of low secondary education students. It argues the importance of educational interventions that strengthen student variables that educational research has shown to shield students from the negative influence of social-family risk factors.

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Aber, J. Lawrence,Bennett, Neil,Conley, Dalton,Li, Jiali. (1997). The Effects of Poverty on Child Health and Development. Annual Review of Public Health. 18. 463
  • Ahmad, Iqbal,Khan, Nasrullah. (2012). Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Conditions and Student’s Academic Achievements: A case of district dir, Timergara, Pakistan. Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Review. 1. 137
  • Aschbacher, Pamela,Ing, Marsha,Tsai, Sherry. (2013). Boosting Student Interest in Science. Phi Delta Kappan. 95. 47-51
  • Benner, Aprile,Graham, Sandra. (2009). The Transition to High School as a Developmental Process among Multiethnic Urban Youth. Child Development. 80. 356
  • Benner, Aprile,Boyle, Alaina,Sadler, Sydney. (2016). Parental Involvement and Adolescents’ Educational Success: The roles of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 45. 1053
  • Bolger, Kerry,Patterson, Charlotte,Thompson, William,Kupersmidt, Janis. (1995). Psychosocial Adjustment among Children Experiencing Persistent and Intermittent Family Economic Hardship. Child Development. 66. 1107
  • Bornstein, Marc,Bradley, Robert. (2003). Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Child Development. Lawrence Erlbaum. Mahwah.
  • Boxer, Paul,Goldstein, Sara,DeLorenzo, Tahlia,Savoy, Sarah,Mercado, Ignacio. (2011). Educational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies: Relation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors. Journal of Adolescence. 34. 609
  • Bronfenbrenner, Urie. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
  • Buehler, Cheryl,Gerard, Jean. (2013). Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 42. 905
  • Bullón, Fernando,Maestre, María,Felipe, Elena,León, Benito,Polo, María Isabel. (2017). Análisis del rendimiento académico de los alumnos de educación secundaria obligatoria según las variables familiares. Educación XX1. 20. 209
  • Caldas, Stephen,Bankston, Carl. (1997). Effect of School Population Socioeconomic Status on Individual Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Research. 90. 269
  • Callan, Gregory,Marchant, Gregory,Finch, Holmes,Flegge, Lindsay. (2017). Student and School SES, Gender, Strategy Use, and Achievement. Psychology in the Schools. 54. 1106
  • Campbell, Frances,Ramey, Craig. (1994). Effects of Early Intervention on Intellectual and Academic Achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development. 65. 684
  • Castro, Mario,Expósito-Casas, Eva,López-Martín, Esther,Lizasoain, Luis,Navarro-Asencio, Enrique,Gaviria, José Luis. (2015). Parental Involvement on Student Academic Achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review. 14. 33-46
  • Cervini, Rubén,Dari, Nora,Quiroz, Silvia. (2016). Estructura familiar, tamaño de la familia y el rendimiento en matemática y lectura: análisis comparativo entre países de América Latina. Perfiles Educativos. 38. 12-31
  • Chandra, Ritu,Azimuddin, Sheikh. (2013). Influence of Socio Economic Status on Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students of Lucknow City. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 4. 1952
  • Chaparro, Alicia,González, Coral,Caso, Joaquín. (2016). Familia y rendimiento académico: configuración de perfiles estudiantiles en secundaria. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. 18. 53-68
  • Chen, Shiuh-Tarng,Kaplowitz, Stan. (2016). Family Economic Status, Cultural Capital, and Academic Achievement: The case of Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development. 39. 271
  • Ciciolla, Lucia,Curlee, Alexandria,Karageorge, Jason,Luthar, Suniya. (2017). When Mothers and Fathers Are Seen as Disproportionately Valuing Achievements: Implications for adjustment among upper middle-class youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 46. 1057
  • Claessens, Amy,Engel, Mimi,Curran, Chris. (2015). The Effects of Maternal Depression on Child Outcomes During the First Years of Formal Schooling. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 32. 80-93
  • Cleary, Timothy,Kitsantas, Anastasia. (2017). Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning Influences on Middle School Mathematics Achievement. School Psychology Review. 46. 88-107
  • Coleman, James,Campbell, Ernest,Hobson, Carol,McPartland, James,Mood, Alexander,Weinfeld, Frederic,York, Robert. (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Government Printing Office. Washington DC, U.S.
  • Díaz, Karla,Osuna, Cecilia. (2017). Contexto sociofamiliar en jóvenes en situación de abandono escolar en educación media superior. Un estudio de caso. Perfiles Educativos. 39. 70-90
  • Dietrichson, Jens,Bøg, Martin,Filges, Trine,Jørgensen, Anne-Marie. (2017). Academic Interventions for Elementary and Middle School Students with Low Socioeconomic Status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research. 87. 243
  • Duncan, Greg,Dowsett, Chantelle,Claessens, Amy,Magnuson, Katherine,Huston, Aletha,Klebanov, Pamela,Pagani, Linda,Feinstein, Leon,Engel, Mimi,Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne,Sexton, Holly,Duckworth, Kathryn,Japel, Crista. (2007). School Readiness and Later Achievement. Developmental Psychology. 43. 1428
  • Eccles, Jacquelynne,Wong, Carol,Peck, Stephen. (2006). Ethnicity as a Social Context for the Development of African-American Adolescents. Journal of School Psychology. 44. 407
  • Elosua, Paula. (2013). Diferencias individuales y autonómicas en el estatus socioeconómico y cultural como predictores en PISA 2009. Revista de Educación. 646
  • Enríquez, Carolina,Segura, Ángela,Tovar, José. (2013). Factores de riesgo asociados a bajo rendimiento académico en escolares de Bogotá. Revista Investigaciones Andina. 15. 654
  • Eshetu, Amogne. (2015). Parental Socio-economic Status as a Determinant Factor on Academic Performance of Students in Regional Examination: Case of Dessie Town, Ethiopia. International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review. 3. 247
  • Evans, Gary,Lepore, Stephen,Shejwal, Bhaskar,Palsane, Madan. (1998). Chronic Residential Crowding and Children’s Well-being: An ecological perspective. Child Development. 69. 1514
  • Farooq, Muhammad,Chaudry, Anisha,Shafiq, M.,Berhanu, Getenesh. (2011). Factors Affecting Students’ Quality of Academic Performance: A case of secondary school level. Journal of Quality and Technology Management. 7. 1-14
  • Florian, Lani,Young, Kathryn,Rouse, Martyn. (2010). Preparing Teachers for Inclusive and Diverse Educational Environments: Studying curricular reform in an initial teacher education course. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 14. 709
  • Froiland, John,Worrell, Frank. (2016). Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School. Psychology in the Schools. 53. 321
  • Gamazo, Adiana,Martínez-Abad, Fernando,Olmos-Migueláñez, Susana,Rodríguez-Conde, María José. (2018). Evaluación de factores relacionados con la eficacia escolar en PISA 2015. Un análisis multinivel. Revista de Educación. 56-84
  • Gates, Peter,Guo, Xumei. (2014). How British-Chinese Parents Support their Children: A view from the regions. Educational Review. 66. 168
  • Gaxiola, José,González, Sabdybell,Gaxiola, Eunice. (2013). Autorregulación, resiliencia y metas educativas: variables protectoras del rendimiento académico de bachilleres. Revista Colombiana de Psicología. 22. 241
  • Ghazarian, Sharon,Buehler, Cheryl. (2010). Interparental Conflict and Academic Achievement: An examination of mediating and moderating factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 39. 23-35
  • Gizir, Cem Ali,Gul, Aydin. (2009). Protective Factors Contributing to the Academic Resilience of Students Living in Poverty in Turkey. Professional School Counseling. 13. 38-49
  • Gniewosz, Burkhard,Eccles, Jacquelynne,Noack, Peter. (2012). Secondary School Transition and the Use of Different Sources of Information for the Construction of the Academic Self-concept. Social Development. 21. 537
  • Goldstein, Sara,Boxer, Paul,Rudolph, Erin. (2015). Middle School Transition Stress: Links with academic performance, motivation, and school experiences. Contemporary School Psychology. 19. 21
  • Gómez, Viviana,Muñoz, Carla,Silva, Ilich,González, María Paz,Guerra, Paula,Valenzuela, Jorge. (2014). Creencias y oportunidades de aprendizaje en la práctica educativa en contextos de pobreza. Perfiles Educativos. 36. 173
  • Gustafsson, Jan-Eric,Nilsen, Trude,Hansen, Kajsa. (2018). School Characteristics Moderating the Relation between Student Socio-economic Status and Mathematics Achievement in Grade 8. Evidence from 50 countries in TIMSS 2011. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 57. 16-30
  • Hattie, John,Eric, M. Anderman. (2013). International Guide to Students Achievement. Routledge. Nueva York.
  • Herrera-Pastor, David,Oña-Cots, José Manuel de. (2017). La personalización de la intervención educativa proporciona igualdad de oportunidades a los menores en situación de riesgo. Revista Internacional de Educación para la Justicia Social. 6. 149
  • Ingersoll, Richard. (1999). The Problem of Underqualified Teachers in American Secondary Schools. Educational Researcher. 28. 26-37
  • Iraurgi, Ioseba,Martínez-Pampliega, Ana,Iriarte, Leire,Sanz, Mireia. (2011). Modelo cognitivo-contextual del conflicto interparental y la adaptación de los hijos. Anales de Psicología. 27. 562
  • Jehangir, Khurrem,Glas, Cees,van den Berg, Stephanie. (2015). Exploring the Relation between Socio-economic Status and Reading Achievement in PISA 2009 through an Intercepts-and-slopes-as-outcomes Paradigm. International Journal of Educational Research. 71. 1-15
  • Karakolidis, Anastasios,Pitsia, Vasiliki,Emvalotis, Anastassios. (2016). Mathematics Low Achievement in Greece: A multilevel analysis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data. Theme in Science and Technology Education. 9. 3-24
  • King, Thomas,McKean, Cristina,Rush, Robert,Westrupp, Elizabeth,Mensah, Fiona,Reilly, Sheena,Law, James. (2017). Acquisition of Maternal Education and Its Relation to Single-Word Reading in Middle Childhood: An analysis of the millennium cohort study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 63. 181-209
  • Korzeniowski, Celina,Cupani, Marcos,Ison, Mirta,Difabio, Hilda. (2016). Rendimiento escolar y condiciones de pobreza: el rol mediador de las funciones ejecutivas. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. 14. 474
  • Krüger, Natalia. (2013). Segregación social y desigualdad de logros educativos en Argentina. Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas. 21. 1-26
  • Lanza, Stephanie,Cooper, Brittany,Bray, Bethany. (2014). Population Heterogeneity in the Salience of Multiple Risk Factors for Adolescent Delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health. 54. 319
  • Lee, Jihyum. (2014). Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries. Journal of Educational Psychology. 106. 364
  • Lee, Kyunghee. (2010). Do Early Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems Predict Long-term Effects among Head Start Children?. Children and Youth Services Review. 32. 1690
  • Liu, Hongquiang,Damme, Jan Van,Gielen, Sarah,Noortgate, Wim Van Den. (2015). School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model specification and estimation. British Educational Research Journal. 41. 423
  • Lorenzo, Mar,Santos, Miguel,Godás, Agustín. (2012). Inmigración y educación, ¿influye el nivel educativo de los padres en el rendimiento académico de los hijos?. Teoría de la Educación. 24. 129
  • Lucio, Robert,Rapp-Paglicci, Lisa,Rowe, William. (2011). Developing an Additive Risk Model for Predicting Academic Index: School factors and academic achievement. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 28. 153
  • Lucio, Robert,Hunt, Elizabeth,Bornovalova, Marina. (2012). Identifying the Necessary and Sufficient Number of Risk Factors for Predicting Academic Failure. Developmental Psychology. 48. 422
  • Marchant, Gregory,Finch, Holmes. (2016). Student, School, and Country: The relationship of SES and inequality to achievement. Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science. 6. 187
  • Marks, Gary. (2008). Are Father’s or Mother’s Socioeconomic Characteristics More Important Influences on Student Performance? Recent International Evidence. Social Indicators Research. 85. 293-309
  • Marsh, Herbert,Martin, Andrew. (2011). Academic Self-concept and Academic Achievement: Relations and causal ordering. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 81. 59-77
  • Martínez, Raquel,Álvarez, Lucía. (2005). Fracaso y abandono escolar en educación secundaria obligatoria: implicación de las familias y de los centros escolares. Aula Abierta. 85. 127
  • McKee, Todd,Caldarella, Paul. (2016). Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A case study of dropout risk indicators. Education. 136. 515
  • Merino, Gladys,Castillo, Sonia. (2017). Repercusiones de la violencia intrafamiliar como factor de riesgo en el rendimiento académico. Journal of Science and Research: Revista de Ciencia e Investigación. 2. 23
  • Morales, Erik. (2010). Linking Strengths: Identifying and exploring protective factor clusters in academically resilient low-socioeconomic urban students of color. Roeper Review. 32. 164
  • Morales, Julie,Guerra, Nancy. (2006). Effects of Multiple Context and Cumulative Stress on Urban Children’s Adjustment in Elementary School. Child Development. 77. 907
  • Noguera, Pedro,Wells, Lauren. (2011). The Politics of School Reform: A broader and bolder approach to Newark. Berkeley Review of Education. 2. 5-25
  • Orthner, Dennis,Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley,Williamson, Sabrina. (2004). The Resilience and Strenghts of Low-Income Families. Family Relations. 53. 159
  • Pati, Susmita,Hashim, Kyleen,Brown, Brett,Fiks, Alexander,Forrest, Christopher. (2011). Early Identification of Young Children at Risk for Poor Academic Achievement: Preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool. BMC Health Services Research. 197-210
  • Perry, Laura,McConney, Andrew. (2010). School Socio-economic Composition and Student Outcomes in Australia: Implications for educational policy. Australian Journal of Education. 54. 72-85
  • Pitsia, Vasiliki,Biggart, Andy,Karakolidis, Anastasios. (2017). The Role of Students’ Self-beliefs, Motivation and Attitudes in Predicting Mathematics Achievement: A multilevel analysis of the Programme for International Student Assessment data. Learning and Individual Differences. 55. 163
  • Prelow, Hazel,Loukas, Alexandra. (2003). The Role of Resource, Protective, and Risk Factors on Academic Achievement-related Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Latino Youth. Journal of Community Psychology. 31. 513
  • Prince, Dana,Nurius, Paula. (2014). The Role of Positive Academic Self-concept in Promoting School Success. Children and Youth Services Review. 43. 145
  • Ragnarsdottir, Laufey,Kristjansson, Alfgeir,Thorisdottir, Ingibjorb,Allegrante, John,Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis,Gestsdottir, Steinunn,Sigfusdottir, Inga. (2017). Cumulative Risk Over the Early Life Course and its Relation to Academic. Preventive Medicine. 96. 36-41
  • Robertson, Dylan,Reynolds, Arthur. (2010). Family Profiles and Educational Attainment. Children and Youth Services Review. 32. 1077
  • Robison, Samuel,Jaggers, Jeremiah,Rhodes, Judith,Blackmon, Bret,Church, Wesley. (2017). Correlates of Educational Success: Predictors of school dropout and graduation for urban students in the Deep South. Children & Youth Services Review. 73. 37-46
  • Robledo, Patricia,García, Jesús Nicasio. (2009). El entorno familiar y su influencia en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos con dificultades de aprendizaje: revisión de estudios empíricos. Aula Abierta. 37. 117
  • Rocchino, Gabrielle,Dever, Bridget,Telesford, Alana,Fletcher, Kristen. (2017). Internalizing and Externalizing in Adolescence: The roles of academic self-efficacy and gender. Psychology in the Schools. 54. 905
  • Rogero, Julio. (2012). El fracaso escolar, causas y alternativas. En la Calle: Revista sobre Situaciones de Riesgo Social. 21. 9-13
  • Roksa, Josipa,Kinsley, Peter. (2018). The Role of Family Support in Facilitating Academic Success of Low-Income Students. Research in Higher Education. 1-22
  • Román, Marcela. (2013). Factores asociados al abandono y la deserción escolar en América Latina: una mirada de conjunto. Revista Electrónica Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación. 11. 34-59
  • Rosen, Maya,Sheridan, Margaret,Sambrook, Kelly,Meltzoff, Andrew,McLaughlin, Katie. (2018). Socioeconomic Disparities in Academic Achievement: A multi-modal investigation of neural mechanisms in children and adolescents. NeuroImage. 173. 298-310
  • Roy, Amanda,Cybele, Raver. (2014). Are All Risks Equal? Early experiences of poverty-related risk and children’s functioning. Journal of Family Psychology. 28. 391-400
  • Rutter, Matthew. (1979). Primary Prevention in Psychopathology. University Press of New England. Hanover.
  • Rutter, Matthew. (1987). Psychosocial Resilience and Protective Mechanism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 57. 316
  • Sameroff, Arnold,Bartko, Todd,Baldwin, Alfred,Baldwin, Clare,Seifer, Ronald. (1998). Families, Risk, and Competence. Erlbaum. Mahwah.
  • Serbin, Lisa,Stack, Dale,Kingdon, Danielle. (2013). Academic Success across the Transition from Primary to Secondary Schooling among Lower-income Adolescents: Understanding the effects of family resources and gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 42. 1331
  • Sharkins, Kimberly,Leger, Sarah,Ernest, James. (2017). Examining Effects of Poverty, Maternal Depression, and Children’s Self-Regulation Abilities on the Development of Language and Cognition in Early Childhood: An early head start perspective. Early Childhood Educational Journal. 45. 493
  • Sirin, Selcuk. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research. 75. 417
  • Smokowski, Paul,Mann, Emily,Reynolds, Arthur,Fraser, Mark. (2004). Childhood Risk and Protective Factors and Late Adolescent Adjustment in Inner City Minority Youth. Children and Youth Services Review. 26. 63-91
  • Suárez, Sonia,Elías, Rodolfo,Zarza, Dalila. (2016). Factores asociados al rendimiento académico de estudiantes de Paraguay: un análisis de los resultados del TERCE. Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación. 14. 113
  • Suárez-Álvarez, Javier,Fernández-Alonso, Rubén,Muñiz, José. (2014). Self-concept, Motivation, Expectations, and Socioeconomic Level as Predictors of Academic Performance in Mathematics. Learning and Individual Differences. 30. 118
  • Swanson, Jodi,Valiente, Carlos,Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn. (2012). Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The mediating roles of effortful control, academic relationships, and school avoidance. Merril-Palmer Quarterly. 58. 375-408
  • Tan, Cheng. (2017). Do Parental Attitudes toward and Expectations for their Children’s Education and Future Jobs Matter for their Children’s School Achievement?. British Educational Research Journal. 43. 1111
  • Tourón, Javier,López-González, Emelina,Lizasoain, Luis,García, María José,Navarro, Enrique. (2018). Alumnado español de alto y bajo rendimiento en ciencias en PISA 2015: análisis del impacto de algunas variables de contexto. Revista de Educación. 156
  • Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella,Shaw, Daniel. (2008). Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 36. 887-901
  • Villar, Antonio,Zoido, Pablo. (2016). Challenges to Quality and Equity in Educational Performance for Latin America, a PISA 2012 Perspective. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa. 22. 1-10
  • Wang, Zhe,Soden, Brooke,Deater-Deckard, Kirby,Lukowski, Sarah,Schenker, Victoria,Willcutt, Erik,Thompson, Lee,Petrill, Stephen. (2017). Development in Reading and Math in Children from Different SES Backgrounds: The moderating role of child temperament. Developmental Science. 20. 1-18
  • Whipple, Sara,Evans, Gary,Barry, Rachel,Maxwell, Lorraine. (2010). An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 31. 422
  • White, Gwyne,Stepney, Cesalie,Hatchimonji, Danielle,Moceri, Dominic,Linsky, Arielle,Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin,Elias, Maurice. (2016). The Increasing Impact of Socioeconomics and Race on Standardized Academic Test Scores Across Elementary, Middle, and High School. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 86. 10-23
  • Wilder, Sandra. (2014). Effects of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement: A meta-synthesis. Educational Review. 66. 377
  • Williams, Joseph,Portman, Tarrell. (2014). No One Ever Asked Me’: Urban African American students’ perceptions of educational resilience. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 42. 13-30
  • Williams, Joseph,Steen, Sam,Tracy, Albert,Dely, Betty,Jacobs, Brian,Nagel, Chelsea,Irick, Anese. (2015). Academically Resilient, Low-income Students’ Perspectives of How School Counselors Can Meet their Academic Needs. Professional School Counseling. 19. 155
  • Williams, Joseph,Bryan, Julia,Morrison, Stephaney,Scott, Tracey. (2017). Protective Factors and Processes Contributing to the Academic Success of Students Living in Poverty: Implications for counselors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 45. 183-200
  • Xing, Tony,Wang, Yan,Ruggerio, Adryona. (2017). Childhood Adversity and Children’s Academic Functioning: Roles of parenting stress and neighborhood support. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 26. 2742
  • Yoshikawa, Hirokazu,Aber, Lawrence,Beardslee, William. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist. 67. 272
  • Zhao, Ningning,Valcke, Martin,Desoete, Annemie,Verhaeghe, JeanPierre. (2012). The Quadratic Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Learning Performance in China by Multilevel Analysis: Implications for policies to foster education equity. International Journal of Educational Development. 32. 412