Procesos cognoscitivos básicos asociados a las dificultades en comprensión lectora de alumnos de secundaria

  1. Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías
  2. Juan Eugenio Jiménez González
  3. Eduardo García Miranda
Revista mexicana de investigación educativa

ISSN: 1405-6666

Ano de publicación: 2015

Volume: 20

Número: 65

Páxinas: 581-605

Tipo: Artigo


To aid secondary students with deficits in reading comprehension, it is necessary to identify performance in basic cognitive processes. The influence of these processes is not seen in the same manner in all individuals and does not reflect the same problem. For this reason, a comparative study was carried out with 89 students divided into groups by reading performance: readers with difficulties and normal readers. To determine performance in reading comprehension, Basic Intelligent Reading software was used, and to evaluate basic cognitive processes, Sicole-R software. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups, and the variable that best predicted performance in reading comprehension was syntactic processing. The group with reading difficulties was shown to be heterogeneous, with strengths as well as deficits to be considered when developing supportive educational programs.

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Abusamra, V., Miranda, A., Ferreres, A.. (2007). Evaluación de la iniciación e inhibición verbal en español. Adaptación y normas del test de Hayling. Revista Argentina de Neuropsicología. 19-32
  • Al-Yagon, M., Cavendish, W., Cornoldi, C., Fawcett, A. J., Grünke, M., Hung, L. Y., Jiménez, J. E., Karande, S., van Kraayenoord, C. E., Lucangeli, D., Margalit, M., Montague, M., Sholapurwala, R., Sideridis, G., Tressoldi, P. E, Vio, C.. (2013). The proposed changes for dsm-5 for sld and adhd International Perspectives-Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States. Journal of learning disabilities. 46. 58-72
  • Bentin, S., Deutsch, A., Liberman, I. Y.. (1990). Syntactic competence and reading ability in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 49. 147-172
  • Cain, K.. (2007). Syntactic awareness and reading ability: Is there any evidence for a special relationship?. Applied psycholinguistics. 28. 679
  • Cain, K., Oakhill, J. V., Elbro, C.. (2003). The ability to learn new word meanings from context by school-age children with and without language comprehension difficulties. Journal of Child Language. 30. 681-694
  • Carretti, B., Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., Romanó, M.. (2005). Updating in working memory: A comparison of good and poor comprehenders. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 91. 45-66
  • Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., McVerry, G., O'Byrne, I., Leu, D.. (2011). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: New opportunities and challenges for students with learning difficulties. Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy. 91-110
  • Cattell, R. B., Cattell, A. K. S.. (1989). Test de Factor "g". Escala 2. tea. Madrid.
  • Catts, H. W., Adlof, S. M., Ellis Weismer, S.. (2006). Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 49. 278
  • Chung, K. K., Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S. M., Lee, S. H.. (2013). Contributions of syntactic awareness to reading in Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia. 19. 11-36
  • Defior, S., Justicia, F., Martos, F. J.. (1996). The influence of lexical and sublexical variables in normal and poor Spanish readers. Reading and Writing. 8. 487-497
  • Fisher, D., Ivey, G.. (2006). Evaluating the interventions for struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Adolescent y Adult Literacy. 50. 180-189
  • Fijalkow, J., Ragano, S.. (2004). Dyslexie: Le retour. Analise psicologica. 22. 175-185
  • Flores, R., Jiménez, J. E., García, E.. (2015). Adolescentes pobres lectores: Evaluación de procesos cognoscitivos básicos. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa.
  • Flores, R., Macotela, S.. (2006). Problemas de aprendizaje en la adolescencia: Experiencias en el programa Alcanzando el Éxito en Secundaria. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México.
  • Flores, R., Otero, A., Lavallée, M., Otero, F.. (2010). Lectura inteligente: Un software para apoyar la formación de lectores en la escuela secundaria. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México.
  • Field, A.. (2009). Discovering statistics using. tercera. Sage Publications. Londres.
  • Flood, J., Lapp, D.. (2000). Struggling adolescent readers: A collection of teaching strategies. International Reading Association. Newark^eDE DE. 138-147
  • Foucambert, D.. (2009). L'amélioration de la compréhension en lecture d'élèves du secondaire par un entraînement syntaxique: modalités, résultats et perspectives. Revue des sciences de l'éducation. 35. 41-63
  • Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L.. (2010). Rethinking response to intervention at middle and high school. School Psychology Review. 39. 22-28
  • García, B.. (2009). Manual de métodos de investigación para las ciencias sociales. Manual ModernoFacultad de Psicología, UNAM. Ciudad de México.
  • González, D.. (2012). Prevalencia e indicadores cognitivos y familiares de la dislexia en adolescentes.
  • Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deshler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A., Stribling, J. W.. (2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools?. Learning Disability Quarterly. 32. 21-38
  • Holsgrove, J. V., Garton, A. F.. (2006). Phonological and syntactic processing and the role of working memory in reading comprehension among secondary school students. Australian journal of psychology. 58. 111-118
  • (2010). México en PISA 2009. Instituto Nacional para la Evaluación de la Educación. Ciudad de México.
  • (2012). Perfiles lectores de los estudiantes de secundaria en pisa 2009. Instituto Nacional para la Evaluación de la Educación. Ciudad de México.
  • (2003). Listado de unidades territoriales, delegación Coyoacán.
  • Jiménez, J. E.. (2012). Dislexia en español: prevalencia e indicadores cognitivos, culturales, familiares y biológicos. Pirámide. Madrid. 25-44
  • Jiménez, J. E., Antón, L., Díaz, A., Estévez, A., García, A. I., García, E., Guzmán, R., Hernández-Valle, I., Ortiz, M. R., Rodrigo, M.. (2007). Sicole-R: Un sistema de evaluación de los procesos cognitivos en la dislexia mediante ayuda asistida a través del ordenador. Universidad de La Laguna.
  • Jiménez, J. E., De la Cadena, C. G., Bizama, M., Flores, R., Zambrano, R., Frugone, M.. (2013). Un enfoque transcultural en el estudio de las dificultades de aprendizaje en lectura: los casos de España, Guatemala, Chile, Ecuador y México. Revista de Psicología y Educación. 8. 13-29
  • Jiménez, J. E., García, E., Estévez, A., Díaz, A., Guzmán, R., Hernández-Valle, I., Hernández, S.. (2004). An evaluation of syntactic-semantic processing in developmental dyslexia. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. 2. 127-142
  • Jiménez, J., Gregg, N., Díaz, A.. (2004). Evaluación de habilidades fonológicas y ortográficas en adolescentes con dislexia y adolescentes buenos lectores. Infancia y Aprendizaje. 27. 63-84
  • Jiménez, J. E., Hernández-Valle, I.. (2012). Dislexia en español: prevalencia e indicadores cognitivos, culturales, familiares y biológicos. Pirámide. Madrid. 45-61
  • Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., Guzmán, R., García, E.. (2010). Desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos de la lectura en estudiantes normolectores y estudiantes con dificultades específicas de aprendizaje. Revista de Educación. 361-386
  • Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., Ramírez, G.. (2009). Spanish developmental dyslexia: Prevalence, cognitive profile and home literacy experiences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 103. 167-185
  • Landerl, K.. (2003). Dyslexia in different languages: Cross-linguistic comparisons. Whurr Publishers. Londres. 15-32
  • Lane, H., Arriaza, S.. (2010). The vocabulary-rich classroom: Modeling sophisticated word use to promote word consciousness and vocabulary growth. The Reading Teacher. 63. 362-370
  • Leikin, M., Bouskila, O. A.. (2004). Expression of syntactic complexity in sentence comprehension: A comparison between dyslexic and regular readers. Reading and Writing. 17. 801-822
  • Leu, D., Zawilinski, L., Castek, J., Banerjee, M., Housand, B., Liu, Y., O'Neil, M.. (2007). Secondary school literacy. What research reveals for classroom practice. National Council of Teachers of English. Urbana^eIllinois Illinois. 37-68
  • Mokhtari, K., Thompson, H. B.. (2006). How problems of reading fluency and comprehension are related to difficulties in syntactic awareness skills among fifth graders. Reading Research and Instruction. 46. 73-94
  • Nation, K., Snowling, M. J.. (2000). Factors influencing syntactic awareness skills in normal readers and poor comprehenders. AppliedPsycholinguistics. 21. 229-241
  • Nippold, M. A., Hesketh, L. J., Duthie, J. K., Mansfield, T. C.. (2005). Conversational versus expository discourse: A study of syntactic development in children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Speech, Language y Hearing Research. 48. 1048-1064
  • Oakhill, J., Hart, J., Samols, D.. (2005). Levels of comprehension monitoring and working memory in good and poor comprehenders. Reading and Writing. 18. 657-686
  • Paulesu, E., Démonet, J. F., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S. F., Cossu, G., Habib, M., Frith, C. D., Frith, U.. (2001). Dyslexia: cultural diversity and biological unity. Science. 291. 2165-2167
  • Rasinski, T. V.. (2009). Essential readings on fluency. International Reading Association. Newark^eDelaware Delaware. 17-20
  • Rodríguez, C., Jiménez, J. E.. (2012). Dislexia en español: prevalencia e indicadores cognitivos, culturales, familiares y biológicos. Pirámide. Madrid. 63-78
  • Rojas, E., Jiménez, J. E.. (2012). Dislexia en español: prevalencia e indicadores cognitivos, culturales, familiares y biológicos. Pirámide. Madrid. 237-257
  • Saenz, L. M., Fuchs, L. S.. (2002). Examining the reading difficulty of secondary students with learning disabilities: Expository versus narrative text. Remedial and Special Education. 23. 31-41
  • Sánchez, E.. (1998). Comprensión y redacción de textos. Edebé. Barcelona.
  • (2011). Modelo de atención de los servicios de educación especial MASE 2011. Dirección de Educación Especial. Ciudad de México.
  • Serrano, F., Defior, S.. (2012). Spanish dyslexic spelling abilities: The case of consonant clusters. Journal of Research in Reading. 35. 169-182
  • Seymour, P. H., Aro, M., Erskine, J. M.. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology. 94. 143-174
  • Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Katz, L., Fowler, A. E., Liberman, A. M., Brady, S. A., Thornton, R., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L., Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A.. (1995). Cognitive profiles of reading disabled children: Comprehension of language skills in phonology, morphology, and syntax. Psychological Science. 6. 149-156
  • Slavin, R. E., Cheung, A., Groff, C., Lake, C.. (2008). Effective reading programs for middle and high schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Reading Research Quarterly. 43. 290-322
  • Suárez, A., Moreno, J. M., Godoy, M. J.. (2010). Vocabulario y comprensión lectora: Algo más que causa y efecto. Alabe: Revista de Investigación sobre Lectura y Escritura. 1-10
  • Tan, A., Nicholson, T.. (1997). Flashcards revisited: Training poor readers to read word master improves their comprehension of text. Journal of Educational Psychology. 89. 267-288
  • Taylor, N. A., Greenberg, D., Laures-Gore, J., Wise, J. C.. (2012). Exploring the syntactic skills of struggling adult readers. Reading and Writing. 25. 1385-1402
  • Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Fletcher, J. M., Denton, C. D., Francis, D. J.. (2010). Response to intervention for middle school students with reading difficulties: Effects of a primary and secondary intervention. School Psychology Review. 39. 3-21
  • Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., Scanlon, D. M.. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades?. Journal of Child psychology and psychiatry. 45. 2-40
  • Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Ciullo, S.. (2010). Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: A synthesis of 20 years of research. Reading and Writing. 23. 889-912
  • Wiseheart, R., Altmann, L. J., Park, H., Lombardino, L. J.. (2009). Sentence comprehension in young adults with developmental dyslexia. Annals of dyslexia. 59. 151-167