La eficacia de la reexperimentación emocionalel papel del optimismo y la alexitimia

  1. Tasmania del Pino 1
  2. Wenceslao Peñate 1
  3. Ascensión Fumero 1
  4. Juan Manuel Bethencourt 1
  5. Sonia Zambrano 2
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España


  2. 2 Universidad Católica de Colombia (Colombia)
EJIHPE: European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education

ISSN: 2174-8144 2254-9625

Année de publication: 2016

Volumen: 6

Número: 3

Pages: 193-205

Type: Article

DOI: 10.30552/EJIHPE.V6I3.179 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDialnet editor

D'autres publications dans: EJIHPE: European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education


The beneficial effects on the health of the re-experimentation of traumatic experiences are well-established. The effectiveness of using reexperimentation seems to be affected by certain conditions. Among personal variables that have been shown to influence the recovery of such experiences it has highlighted the optimism and alexithymia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on mental health of an intervention based on re-experimentation. The sample consisted in a total of 60 participants, of which 40 carried out a process of emotional re-experimentation through three sessions of expressive writing. The rest formed the control group. All participants were evaluated before and after the emotional disclosure in positive and negative affect, anxiety, depression, intrusive thoughts and cognitive avoidance. Furthermore, the level of optimism and alexithymia were controlled. The results showed the effectiveness of expressive writing on the positive and negative affect and on depression. Among the covariables, only optimism affected significantly to effect emotional variables. The contextual and personal conditions that can be ameliorated the clinical use of emotional disclosure were discussed.

Références bibliographiques

  • Citas Arancibia, M., y Behar, R. (2015). Alexitimia y depresión: evidencia, controversias e implicancias. Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 53, 24-34.
  • Baguena, M., Villarroya, E., Beleña, A., Díaz, A., Roldan, C., y Reig, R. (2001). Propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de la Escala Revisada de Impacto del Estresor (EIE-R). Análisis y Modificación de Conducta, 27, 581–604.
  • Baikie, K.A. (2008). Who does expressive writing work for? Examination of alexithymia, splitting, and repressive coping style as moderators of the expressive writing paradigm. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 61-66. doi: 10.1348/135910707X250893
  • Baikie, K.A., Geerligs, L., y Wilhelm, K. (2012). Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: An online randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 310-319. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.032
  • Blasio, P.D., Camisasca, E., Caravita, S.C.S., Ionio, C., Milani, L., y Valtolina, G.G. (2015). The effects of expressive writing on postpartum depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Psychological Reports, 117, 856-882. doi: 10.2466/02.13.PR0.117c29z3
  • Butcher, H.K., Gordon, J.K., Ko, J.W., Perkhounkova, Y., Cho, J.Y., Rinner, A., y Lutgendorf, S. (2016). Finding Meaning in Written Emotional Expression by Family Caregivers of Persons With Dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias. doi: 10.1177/1533317516660611
  • Clyman, J.A., y Pachankis, J.E. (2014). The relationship between objectively coded explanatory style and mental health in the stigma-related narratives of young gay men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(1), 110. doi: 10.1037/a0031500
  • Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental Disclosure and Its Moderators: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823–865. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.823
  • García-Sevilla, J., Méndez, I., Bermúdez, A.M., y Martínez, J.P. (2016). Estudio comparativo de alexitimia en personas institucionalizadas versus aula de mayores. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 6, 5-14.
  • Gil, F., Oberst, U., Del Valle, G., y Chamarro, A. (2015). Nuevas tecnologías ¿Nuevas patologías? El smartphone y el fear of missing out. Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, 33, 77-83.
  • Horowitz, M.J., Wilner, N., y Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209-218. doi: 10.1097/00006842-197905000-00004
  • Ironson, G., O'Cleirigh, C., Leserman, J., Stuetzle, R., Fordiani, J., Fletcher, M., y Schneiderman, N. (2013). Gender-specific effects of an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention on posttraumatic, depressive, and HIV-disease-related outcomes: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 284- 298. doi: 10.1037/a0030814
  • Kállay, É. (2015). Physical and Psychological Benefits of Written Emotional Expression. European Psychologist, 20, 242-251. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000231
  • Koschwanez, H.E., Kerse, N., Darragh, M., Jarrett, P., Booth, R.J., y Broadbent, E. (2013). Expressive writing and wound healing in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 581-590. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31829b7b2e
  • Krpan, K.M., Kross, E., Berman, M.G., Deldin, P.J., Askren, M.K., y Jonides, J. (2013). An everyday activity as a treatment for depression: The benefits of expressive writing for people diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150, 1148-1151. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.065
  • Lafont, J., y Oberle, C.D. (2014). Expressive writing effects on body image: Symptomatic versus asymptomatic women. Psychology, 5, 431-440. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.55053
  • Lumley, M.A., Keefe, F.J., Mosley-Williams, A., Rice, J.R., McKee, D., Waters, S.J., Partridge, R. T., Carty, J.N., Coltri, A.M., Kalaj, A., Neely, L.C., Pahssen, J.K., Connelly, M.A., Bouaziz, Y.B., Riordan, P.A., y Cohen, J.L. (2014). The effects of written emotional disclosure and coping skills training in rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 644. doi: 10.1037/a0036958
  • Mackenzie, C.S., Wiprzycka, U.J., Hasher, L., y Goldstein, D. (2008). Seeing the glass half full: Optimistic expressive writing improves mental health among chronically stressed caregivers. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 73-76. doi: 10.1348/135910707X251153
  • Meads, C., y Nouwen, A. (2005). Does emotional disclosure have any effects? A systematic review of the literature with meta-analyses. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 21, 153-164. doi: 10.1017.S026646230505021X
  • Méndez, I., García-Sevilla, J., Martínez, J.P., Bermúdez, A.M., Pérez, P., y García-Munuera, I. (2015). Alexitimia, resiliencia y creencias paranormales en personas mayores en un centro institucionalizado. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 5, 209-219.
  • Merz, E.L., Fox, R.S., y Malcarne, V.L. (2014). Expressive writing interventions in cancer patients: a systematic review. Health Psychology Review, 8, 339-361. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2014.882007
  • Meston, C.M., Lorenz, T.A., y Stephenson, K.R. (2013). Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Results from a randomized clinical trial. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10, 2177- 2189. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12247
  • Niles, A.N., Haltom, K.E., Mulvenna, C.M., Lieberman, M.D., y Stanton, A.L. (2014). Effects of Expressive Writing on Psychological and Physical Health: The Moderating Role of Emotional Expressivity. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 27, 1-17. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.802308.
  • Nolla, M.C., Queral, R., y Miró, J. (2014). Las escalas PANAS de afecto positivo y negativo: Nuevos datos de su uso en personas mayores. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 19, 15-21.
  • Núñez, J.C., Amieiro, N., Álvarez, D., García, T., y Dobarro, A. (2015). Self-Regulated Learning from Texts (ARATEX-R) Assessment Scale. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 8, 9-22.
  • O'Connor, D.B., Hurling, R., Hendrickx, H., Osborne, G., Hall, J., Walklet, E., Whaley, A., y Wood, H. (2011). Effects of written emotional disclosure on implicit self‐esteem and body image. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 488-501. doi: 10.1348/135910710X523210
  • Peasley-Miklus, C.E., Panayiotou, G., y Vrana, S.R. (2016). Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery. Emotion, 16(2), 164. doi: 10.1037/emo0000086
  • Peñate, W., Del Pino-Sedeño, T., y Bethencourt, J.M. (2010). El efecto diferencial de escribir sobre un mismo trauma o sobre diferentes traumas en el bienestar psicológico y el estado de salud autoinformado. Universitas Psychologica, 9, 433-445.
  • Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S., y Bridges, M.W. (1994). Distinguising optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self mastery and self esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1063
  • Sloan, D.M., Sawyer, A.T., Lowmaster, S.E., Wernick, J., y Marx, B.P. (2015). Efficacy of Narrative Writing as an Intervention for PTSD: Does the Evidence Support Its Use? Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45(4), 215-225. doi: 10.1007/s10879-014-9292-x
  • Smyth, J.M. (1998). Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 174. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.66.1.174
  • Sternberg, R.J. (2015). Successful intelligence: A model for testing intelligence beyond IQ tests. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 8, 76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ejeps.2015.09.004
  • Taber, J.M., Klein, W.M., Ferrer, R.A., Kent, E.E., y Harris, P.R. (2016). Optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation are associated with lower likelihood of cognitive impairment and greater positive affect among cancer survivors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 198-209. doi: 10.1007/s12160-015-9745-9
  • Taylor, G.J., Bagby, R.M., y Parker, J.D.A. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511526831
  • Travagin, G., Margola, D., y Revenson, T.A. (2015). How effective are expressive writing interventions for adolescents? A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 36, 42-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.003
  • Unterhitzenberger, J., y Rosner, R. (2014). Lessons from writing sessions: A school-based randomized trial with adolescent orphans in Rwanda. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.24917
  • Vera-Villarroel, P., y Celis-Atenas, K. (2014). Positive and Negative Affect as Mediator of the Relatioship Optimism-Health: Evaluation of a Structural Model. Universitas Psychologica, 13, 1017-1026. doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.UPSY13-3.apnm
  • Watson, D., Clark, L.A., y Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
  • Zigmond, A.S., y Snaith, R.P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Pschyatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x