Piloting the Response to Intervention Model in the Canary IslandsPrevention of Reading and Math Learning Disabilities

  1. Juan Eugenio Jiménez González 1
  2. Sara del Cristo León Pérez 1
  3. Nuria Gutiérrez Sosa 2
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna
    info

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España

    ROR https://ror.org/01r9z8p25

  2. 2 Florida State University
    info

    Florida State University

    Tallahassee, Estados Unidos

    ROR https://ror.org/05g3dte14

Journal:
The Spanish Journal of Psychology

ISSN: 1138-7416

Year of publication: 2021

Issue: 24

Pages: 29

Type: Article

DOI: 10.1017/SJP.2021.25 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention implemented by elementary school teachers within the context of the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. For this purpose, a Tier 2 or secondary intervention was implemented by Spanish-speaking teachers in grades K-3 after receiving training to implement RtI components with fidelity. A total of 1,923 at-risk students were assigned to treatment (in reading, n = 542; in math, n = 483) or control (in reading, n = 406; in math, n = 492). Teachers were provided with a support system that included two webbased training programs for reading (i.e., Letra program) and math (i.e., Primate program). Implementation fidelity was analyzed using direct observations and self-reports. All students were assessed three times during the academic year. A hierarchical linear growth modeling was conducted, and differences in the growth rate of reading and math performance were analyzed between at-risk students who have received the intervention and those who have not received it. Children at-risk in the intervention condition appeared to benefit more than at-risk children in the control condition. Moreover, findings indicate that the earlier the intervention, the greater the percentage of students who leave the situation of risk of learning difficulties in reading and math.

Bibliographic References

  • Agodini, R.,&Harris, B. (2010). An experimental evaluation of four elementary school math curricula. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3(3), 199–253. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/19345741003770693
  • Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Wanzek, J., Greulich, L., Schatschneider, C., &Wagner, R. K. (2014). To wait in Tier 1 or intervene immediately: A randomized experiment examining first grade response to intervention (RtI) in reading. Exceptional Children, 81(1), 11–27. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0014402914532234
  • Archer, A. L.,&Hughes, C.A. (2011). Exploring the fundations of explicit instruction. In A. L. Archer & C. A. Hughes (Eds.), Explicit instruction: Effective and eficient teaching (pp. 1–22). The Gildford Press.
  • Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., Chaparro, E. A., Smith, J. L.M., & Fien, H. (2015). Using regression discontinuity to test the impact of a Tier 2 reading intervention infirst grade. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(2), 218–244. https:// doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2014.909548
  • Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., & Phelps, G. (2008). Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 389–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0022487108324554
  • Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 255–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jml.2012.11.001
  • Berger, J. (2010). Measuring teaching practices: Does a self-report measure of instruction predict student achievement? [Master’s thesis, University of Maryland]. Digital Repository at the University of Maryland. http://hdl.handle.net/1903/11138
  • Bigozzi, L., Tarchi, C., Caudek, C., & Pinto, G. (2016). Predicting reading and spelling disorders: A 4-year prospective cohort study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(466), Article 337. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00337
  • Boletín Oficial de Canarias. (2017). Convenio de Colaboración entre la Consejería de Educación y Universidades y la Universidad de La Laguna para el desarrollo del programa “Modelo RtI (respuesta a la intervención temprana) Prevención y Mejora del Rendimiento de la Lectura, Escritura y Matemáticas [Collaboration agreement between the Ministry of Education and Universities and the Universidad de La Laguna for the development of the RtI Model (response to early intervention): Prevention and improvement of the performance of reading, writing and mathematics], Pub. L. No. BOC–A–2017–151–3906, 23912 Spain. http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/boc/2017/ 151/016.html
  • Boletín Oficial del Estado. (2013). Ley Orgánica 8/2013, de 9 de diciembre, para la mejora de la calidad educativa [Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, for the improvement of educational quality]. Pub. L. No. 295, 12886 et seq (2013). Spain. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/12/10/pdfs/ BOE-A-2013-12886.pdf
  • Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R.M., Scammacca, N. N., Funk, C., Winter, A., Shih, M., & Pool, C. (2008). The effects of Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students who are at risk for mathematics difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 47–63. https://doi.org/10.2307/20528817
  • Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., & Chavez, M. M. (2008). Mathematics intervention for firstand second-grade students with mathematics difficulties: The effects of Tier 2 intervention delivered as booster lessons. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 20–32. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0741932507309712
  • Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291107800101
  • Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E., & Hall, S. T. (2004). Direct reading instruction (4th Ed.). Merrill/Prentice Hall.
  • Century, J., Rudnick, M., & Freeman, C. (2010). A framework for measuring fidelity of implementation: A foundation for shared language and accumulation of knowledge. American Journal of Evaluation, 31(2), 199–218. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1098214010366173
  • Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Turtura, J., Kosty, D., Kurtz-Nelson, E., Fien, H., & Baker, S. K. (2019). Exploring the relationship between initial mathematics skill and a kindergarten mathematics intervention. Exceptional Children, 85(2), 129–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0014402918799503
  • Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Strand Cary, M., Kosty, D., Baker, S., Fien, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2014). Preliminary evaluation of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention for firstgrade students: Using a theory of change to guide formative evaluation activities. School Psychology Review, 43(2), 160–178. http://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2014.12087442
  • Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1999). The problem of units and the circumstance for POMP. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 34(3), 315–346. https:// doi.org/10.1207/S15327906MBR3403_2
  • Crespo, P., Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., Baker, D. L., & Park, Y. (2018). Differences in growth reading patterns for at-risk Spanish-monolingual children as a function of a tier 2 intervention. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 21, Article E4. http://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2018.3
  • de León, S. C., Jiménez, J. E., García, E., & Gutiérrez, N. (2021). Identification of third graders at risk of math problems: Usefulness of number sense based screening measures. Psychology in the Schools. http://doi.org/10.1002/ pits.22525.
  • de León, S. C., Jiménez, J. E., García, E., Gutiérrez, N., & Gil, V. (2020). Universal screening in mathematics for spanish students in first grade. Learning Disability Quarterly. http:// doi.org/10.1177/0731948720903273
  • de León, S. C., Jiménez, J. E., & Hernández-Cabrera, J. A. (2020). Confirmatory factor analysis of the indicators of basic early math skills. Current Psychology, 39, 1–12. http:// doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00596-0
  • Dennis, M. S. (2015). Effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 mathematics interventions for second graders with mathematics difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 30(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12051
  • Dennis, M. S., Bryant, B. R., & Drogan, R. (2015). The impact of Tier 2 mathematics instruction on second graders with mathematics difficulties. Exceptionality, 23(2), 124–145. https://doi.org/10.1080/09362835.2014.986613
  • Dennis, M. S., Sharp, E., Chovanes, J., Thomas, A., Burns, R. M., Custer, B., & Park, J. (2016). A meta-analysis of empirical research on teaching students with mathematics learning difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 31(3), 156–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12107
  • Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B.,Kosty,D. B.,Kurtz-Nelson, E., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., & Baker, S. K. (2016). Testing the efficacy of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention: A conceptual replication study. Exceptional Children, 83(1), 92–110. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402916660084
  • Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Kosty, D., Turtura, J. E., Firestone, A. R., Smolkowski, K., Jungjohann, K., Brafford, T. L., Nelson, N. J., Sutherland, M., Fien, H., & Maddox, S. A. (2019). Efficacy of a first-grade mathematics intervention on measurement and data analysis. Exceptional Children, 86(1), 77–94. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402919857993
  • Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Moody, S. W. (2000). How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 605–619. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022-0663.92.4.605
  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Stecker, P. M. (2010). The “blurring” of special education in a new continuumof general education placements and services. Exceptional Children, 76(3), 301–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291007600304
  • Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-Intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 157–171. https:// doi.org/10.1111/1540-5826.00072
  • Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Paulsen, K., Bryant, J. D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2005). The prevention, identification, and cognitive determinants of math difficulty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 493–513. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.493
  • Fuchs, L. S., & Vaughn, S. (2012). Responsiveness-toIntervention: Adecade later. Journal of LearningDisabilities, 45 (3), 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219412442150
  • Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009–4060). National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. https:// eric.ed.gov/?id=ED504995
  • Gersten, R., Compton, D. L., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L. E., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2009). Assisting students struggling with reading : Response to Intervention (RtI) and multi-tier intervention in the primary grades (NCEE 2009–4045). National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. https:// buildingrti.utexas.org/sites/default/files/booklets/ Assisting_Students_Struggling_with_Reading.pdf
  • Gersten, R., Haymond, K., Newman-Gonchar, R., Dimino, J., & Jayanthi, M. (2020). Meta-Analysis of the impact of reading interventions for students in the primary grades. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 13(2), 401–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2019.1689591
  • Gilbert, J. K., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Bouton, B., Barquero, L. A., & Cho, E. (2013). Efficacy of a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model for struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(2), 135–154. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.45
  • Grañeras, M., Lucio-Villegas, M., Díaz-Caneja, P., Gómez, T. F., de Andrés, C., Rodríguez, F., Cerveira, P.V.V., Gallego, C., Defior, S.A., Fernández-Zúñiga, A., Cuetos, F., & Jiménez, J. E. (2012). La atención al alumnado con dislexia en el sistema educativo en el contexto de las necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo [Educational support to dyslexics within special educational needs] (EURYDICE Spain, REDIE Series).Ministerio de Educación, Cultura yDeporte. https:// sede.educacion.gob.es/publiventa/la-atencion-al- alumnado-con-dislexia-en-el-sistema-educativo-en-elcontexto-de-las-necesidades-especificas-de-apoyoeducativo/educacion-especial-y-compensatoria/15956
  • Grosche, M., & Volpe, R. J. (2013). Response-to-intervention (RTI) as a model to facilitate inclusion for students with learning and behaviour problems. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 28(3), 254–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 08856257.2013.768452
  • Gutiérrez, N., Jiménez, J. E., & de León, S. C. (2021). Reading curriculum-based measures for universal screening in Spanish monolinguals first graders [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Universidad de La Laguna
  • Gutiérrez, N., Jiménez, J. E., de León, S. C., & Seoane, R. C. (2020). Assessing foundational reading skills in kindergarten: A curriculum-based measurement in Spanish. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53(2), 145–159. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0022219419893649
  • Instituto Canario de Estadística. (2017). Tasas de idoneidad del alumnado no universitario según sexos, edades y cursos [Nonuniversity student suitability rates according to sex, age and course]. http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/istac/jaxiistac/tabla.do?uripx=urn:uuid:233c9b5d-f318-4d6e-97ff5b277666ef96
  • Jiménez, J. E. (1986). Métodos de lectura y diagnóstico instruccional [Approaches to teaching reading and assessment]. Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, 41(6), 1063–1075.
  • Jiménez, J. E. (2020). Plataforma Web_Primate: programa tutorial para la formación docente en elModelo de Respuesta a la Intervención en matemáticas [Web_Primate Platform: a web-based tutorial program for teacher training in the response to interventionmodel inmaths]. Universidad de La Laguna. http://primate.ull.es.
  • Jiménez, J. E., & de León, S. C. (2017a). Análisis factorial confirmatorio de Indicadores de Progreso de Aprendizaje en Matemáticas (IPAM) en escolares de primer curso de Primaria [Confirmatory factor analysis of IPAM in firstgrade students]. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 7(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/ 10.1989/ejihpe.v7i1.193
  • Jiménez, J. E., & de León, S. C. (2017b). Análisis factorial confirmatorio del IPAM en escolares de tercer curso de primaria [Confirmatory factor analysis of IPAM in third grade of primary school]. Evaluar, 17(2), 81–96. http:// doi.org/10.35670/1667-4545.v17.n2.18723
  • Jiménez, J. E., & de León, S.C. (2019). IPAM: Indicadores de Progreso de Aprendizaje enMatemáticas [Indicators of Basic Early Math Skills] [Supplemental material]. In J. E. Jimenez (Ed.), Modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención. Un enfoque preventivo para el abordaje de las dificultades específicas de aprendizaje [Response to Intervention Model. A preventive approach for learning disabilities]. Pirámide.
  • Jiménez, J. E., & Gutiérrez, N. (2017). Efectos de un sistema de aprendizaje tutorial online en profesorado tutor y de apoyo de las Islas Canarias para la instrucción temprana de las matemáticas en población de riesgo [Effects of online tutorial system on classroom and support in-service teachers in the Canary Islands for the early instruction of students at risk for math difficulties] Psychology, Society & Education, 9(1), 45–59. http://doi.org/10.25115/ psye.v9i1.463
  • Jiménez, J. E., & Gutiérrez, N. (2019). IPAL: Indicadores de Progreso deAprendizaje enLectura [Indicators of Basic Early Reading Skills] [Supplemental material]. In J. E. Jimenez (Ed.), Modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención. Un enfoque preventivo para el abordaje de las dificultades específicas de aprendizaje [Response to Intervention Model. A preventive approach for learning disabilities]. Pirámide.
  • Jiménez, J. E., & O’Shanahan, I. (2016). Effects of web-based training on Spanish pre-service and in-service teacher knowledge and implicit beliefs on learning to read. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55,175–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.tate.2016.01.006.
  • Jiménez, J. E., O’Shanahan, I., González, J. Á., Frugone,M., & Barrientos, P. (2014). Pre-service students and in-service teachers’ rating of the Letra program: a piloting experience in Latin American countries. Estudios de Psicología, 35(3), 605–624. https://doi.org/10.1080/02109395.2014.974423
  • Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., Crespo, P., González, D., Artiles, C., & Alfonso, M. (2010). Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI)Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands. Psicothema. 22(4), 935–942.
  • Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., González, D., Crespo, P., O’Shanahan, I., Guzmán, R., & Suárez, N. (2019). Actividades instruccionales para lamejora de los procesos de aprendizaje de lectura [Instructional activities for early reading improvement] [Supplemental material]. In J. E. Jiménez (Ed.),Modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención. Un enfoque preventivo para el abordaje de las dificultades específicas de aprendizaje [Response to Intervention Model. A preventive approach for learning disabilities]. Pirámide.
  • Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez, C., González, D., O’Shanahan, I., Guzmán, R., & Suárez, N. (2020). Plataforma Web_Letra: programa tutorial para la formación docente en elModelo de Respuesta a la Intervención en lectura [Web_Letra Platform: a web-based tutorial program for teacher training in the response to intervention model in reading]. Universidad de La Laguna. http://letras.ull.es
  • Jiménez, J. E., Villarroel, R., & Bisschop, E. (2019). Actividades instruccionales para lamejora de los procesos de aprendizaje dematemática temprana [Instructional activities for early math improvement] [Supplemental material]. In J. E. Jiménez (Ed.), Modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención. Un enfoque preventivo para el abordaje de las dificultades específicas de aprendizaje [Response to Intervention Model. A preventive approach for learning disabilities]. Pirámide.
  • Johnson, E., Mellard, D. F., Fuchs, D., & McKnight, M. A. (2006). Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI): How to do it. National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
  • Kamps, D., Abbott,M., Greenwood, C.,Wills, H., Veerkamp, M., & Kaufman, J. (2008). Effects of small-group reading instruction and curriculum differences for students most at risk in kindergarten: Two-year results for secondaryand tertiary-level interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(2), 101–114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219407313412
  • Lembke, E. S., Hampton, D., & Beyers, S. J. (2012). Response to intervention in mathematics: Critical elements. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 257–272. https://doi.org/10.1002/ pits.21596
  • Lerner, J. W., & Johns, B. (2012). Learning disabilities and related mild disabilities: Teaching strategies and new directions. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Lonigan, C. J., & Phillips, B. M. (2009). Reducing children’s risk for later reading disabilities: The role of Tier 1 and Tier 2 instruction in preschool. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 35(5), 21–26.
  • Lyytinen, H., Erskine, J., Hämäläinen, J., Torppa, M., & Ronimus, M. (2015). Dyslexia— Early identification and prevention: Highlights from the Jyväskylä longitudinal study of dyslexia. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 2(4), 330–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-015-0067-1
  • McCutchen, D., Abbott, R. D., Green, L. B., Beretvas, S. N., Cox, S., Potter, N. S., Quiroga, T., & Gray, A. L. (2002). Beginning literacy: Links among teacher knowledge, teacher practice, and student learning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 69–86. http://doi.org/10.1177/002221940203500106
  • Mellard, D. F., & Johnson, E. (2008). RTI : A practitioner’s guide to implementing response to intervention. Corwin Press. http:// doi.org/10.4135/9781483329772
  • Moats, L. C., & Foorman, B. R. (2003). Measuring teachers’ content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 23–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-003- 0003-7
  • Moeller, J. (2015). A word on standardization in longitudinal studies: Don’t. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Article 1389. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01389
  • National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010). Essential components of RTI –A closer look at response to intervention. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.
  • National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00–4769, 7, 35). https:// www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf
  • O’Donnell, C. L. (2008). Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K–12 curriculum intervention research. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 33–84. https://doi.org/ 10.3102/0034654307313793
  • Peake, C. (2015). Dificultades específicas de aprendizaje en matemáticas: Subtipos e indicadores cognitivos y familiares [Learning disabilities in Math: Subtypes and cognitive and familar indicators] [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Universidad de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
  • Peugh, J. L., & Heck, R. H. (2017). Conducting three-level longitudinal analyses. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 37(1), 7–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431616642329
  • Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd Ed.). Sage Publications.
  • Richards-Tutor, C., Baker, D. L., Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., & Smith, J. M. (2016). The effectiveness of reading interventions for english learners: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 82(2), 144–169. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0014402915585483
  • Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J.-A. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73(2), 445–460. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00417
  • Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411
  • Strand Cary, M. G., Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., & Baker, S. K. (2017). A practitioner implementation of a Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention. Learning Disability Quarterly, 40(4), 211–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948717714715
  • Tilly, W. D. (2006). Diagnosing the learning enabled: The promise of response to intervention. Perspectives, 32(1), 20–24.
  • Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Scammacca, N., Gatlin, B., Walker, M.A.,&Capin, P. (2016).Meta-Analyses of the effects of Tier 2 Type Reading Interventions in grades K–3. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 551–576. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10648-015-9321-7
  • Wong, T. T.-Y., & Chan, W. W. L. (2019). Identifying children with persistent low math achievement: The role of numbermagnitude mapping and symbolic numerical processing. Learning and Instruction, 60(1), 29–40. http://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.11.00