Informe del Comité Científico de la Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición (AESAN) en relación a los efectos del cambio climático sobre la presencia de micotoxinas en los alimentos

  1. Sonia Marín Sillué
  2. Álvaro Daschner
  3. Francisco Jose Morales Navas
  4. Carmen Rubio Armendáriz
  5. Maria José Ruiz Leal
  6. Pedro Ángel Burdaspal Pérez
Journal:
Revista del Comité Científico de la AESAN

ISSN: 1885-6586

Year of publication: 2021

Issue: 33

Pages: 11-51

Type: Article

Export: RIS

Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by multiple species of molds that can develop in crops and food under certain conditions of humidity and temperature. Therefore, it is believed that the appearance of mycotoxins will be greatly affected by future climate scenarios. Mycotoxin contamination is a problem, therefore, in foods of plant origin, mainly in cereals and nuts, but also in foods of animal origin, when the animal has been fed with contaminated feed. The review of the existing scientific evidence in relation to climate change points to a geographical redistribution of the incidence of the different mycotoxins, which at a global level may not necessarily represent an increase, since the possible reduction in cultivable areas must be taken into account. As a consequence of extreme weather conditions. However, even locally, and focusing on Southern Europe, a clear increase in the incidence of aflatoxins in corn, traditionally linked to tropical climates, and also a worsening of the already existing problem of fumonisins in this same cereal, can be expected. There are various mitigation strategies for the growing mycotoxin problem, including preventive agricultural practices in the field, during the harvest and storage of cereals, physical, chemical and biological decontamination processes, and self-monitoring based on sampling and analysis in the different steps of the food chain. For all the above, it is necessary to insist on the convenience of joining efforts not only against climate change as a global phenomenon, but also in the promotion and adoption of specific projects and programs aimed at preventing and mitigating the incidence of the presence of mycotoxins. In feed and food products, with the participation of the public and private sectors, naturally including the scientific community, those responsible for risk management, producers and even consumers through the appropriate communication strategies.