Duelo adaptativo, no adaptativo y continuidad de vínculos

  1. Alfonso Miguel García Hernández
  2. Martín Rodríguez Álvaro
  3. Pedro Ruymán Brito Brito
  4. Domingo A. Fernández Gutiérrez
  5. Carlos E. Martínez Alberto
  6. Cristo Marrero González
ENE Revista de Enfermería

ISSN: 1988-348X

Année de publication: 2021

Número: 15

Type: Article

D'autres publications dans: ENE Revista de Enfermería


Adaptative grieving is a natural and self-limiting adjustment to a new reality that arises after a significant loss, real or perceived, with a wide range of manifestations that impact the health of the bereaved. Research on grief has modified the way we understand its processes so that its classification has drastically changed. The different types of grief can be grouped into two categories: adaptive grieving and maladaptive grieving. The latter group includes a pool of processes, including traumatic grievieng, complicated grieving and spiritual grieving. The specialized literature gathers different scales and measuring instruments that help toassess the course and risk of complications throughout grief. There is an increasing number of research associated with the continuity of bonds. And there is also a need to evaluate the effectiveness of this connection and its adaptive capacity.

Références bibliographiques

  • Albuquerque, S.; Pereira, M.; Narciso, I. (2019). Portuguese Version of the Continuing Bonds Scale-16 in a Sample of Bereaved Parents. Journal os Loss and Trauma, 1-19.
  • Aoun, S. M.; Breen, L. J.; Howting, D. A.; Rumbold, B.; McNamara, B.; Hegney, D. (2015). Who needs bereavement support? A population-based survey of bereavement risk and support need. PLoS ONE, 10, 1–14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121101
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5ª ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-5. Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (5ª Edición). Editorial Médica Panamericana.
  • Attig, T. (1996). How we grieve. Relearning the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barreto, P.; Yi, P.; Soler C. (2008). Predictores de duelo complicado. Psico-Oncología, 5(2-3), 383-400.
  • Barreto, P.; de la Torre, O.; Pérez-Marín, M. (2012). Detección del duelo complicado. Psicooncología, 9, 2-3, 355-368. DOI: 10.5209/rev_PSIC.2013.v9.n2-3.40902
  • Bennett, G., Bennett, K.M. (2000). The presence of the dead: an empirical study. Mortality, 5 (2) 139-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/713686002
  • Black, C. G. (2014). Continuing bonds, meaning making and collectivism: predictors of complicated grief. (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Kansas City, Missouri, Estados Unidos.
  • Black, J.; Belicki, K.; Emberly-Ralph, J.; McCann, A. (2020). Internalized versus externalized continuing bonds: Relations to grief, trauma, attachment, openness to experience, and posttraumatic growth. Death Studies, 44. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1737274
  • Boelen, P. A. (2013). Symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, and adult separation anxiety: Distinctiveness and correlates. Psychiatry Research, 207(1-2), 68-72. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.021
  • Boelen, P. A.; van den Schoot, R.; van den Hout, M. A.; de Keijser, J.; van den Bout, J. (2010). Prolonged grief disorder, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are distinguishable syndromes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125(1-3), 374-378. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.01.076
  • Boelen, P. A.; Reijntjes, A.; Djelantik, A.; Smid, G. E. (2016). Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss: Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates. Psychiatry Research, 240, 358–363. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.012
  • Boelen, P. A.; Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. A. W.; Zijerveld, A. M. (2006). Continuing bonds and grief: A prospective analysis. Death Studies, 30, 767–776. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600852936
  • Boelen, P. A.; van Denderen, M.; de Keijser, J. (2016). Prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, anger, and revenge phenomena following homicidal loss: The role of negative cognitions and avoidance behaviors. Homicide Studies: An Interdisciplinary & International Journal, 20(2), 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767915580674
  • Bonanno, G. A., Wortman, C. B., Nesse, R. M. (2004). Prospective Patterns of Resilience and Maladjustment During Widowhood. Psychology and Aging, 19(2), 260–271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.260
  • Brandstätter, M., Kögler, M., Baumann, U., Fensterer, V., Küchenhoff, H., Borasio, G. D., & Fegg, M. J. (2014). Experience of meaning in life in bereaved informal caregivers of palliative care patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 22, 1391–1399. Doi:10.1007/s00520-013-2099-6
  • Breen, L.; O’Connor, M. (2007). The fundamental paradox in the grief literature: A critical reflection. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 55, 199–218. doi:10.2190/OM.55.3.c
  • Breen, L. J.; Karangoda, M. D.; Kane, R. T.; Howting, D. A.; Aoun, S. M. (2018). Differences in meanings made according to prolonged grief syntomatology. Death Studies, 42 (2), 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2017.1328467
  • Burke, L. A., Clark, K. A., Ali, K. S., Gibson, B. W., Smigelsky, M. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2015). Risk factors for anticipatory grief in faily members of terminally ill veterans receiving palliative care services. Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, 11, 244–266. doi:10.1080/15524256.2015.1110071
  • Burnett, Paul C. (1997) Core bereavement items. Consulta [6 de febrero de 2021] en https://eprints.qut.edu.au/26824/
  • Burnett, PC; Middleton, W.; Raphael, B.; Martinek, N. (1997). Measuring core bereavement phenomena. Psychological Medicine, 27, 49–57.
  • Carmassi, C.; Shear, M. K.; Massimetti, G.; Wall, M.; Mauro, C.; Gemignani, S.; Conversano, C.; Dell'Osso, L. (2014). Validation of the italian version Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG): A study comparing cg patients versus bipolar disorder, PTSD and healthy controls. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(5), 1322-1329. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.001
  • Coleman, R. A.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2010). Measuring meaning: Searching for and making sense of spousal loss in late life. Death Studies, 34, 804-834. Doi:10.1080/07481181003761625
  • Currier, J. M.; Holland, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2012). Prolonged grief symptoms and growth in the first 2 years of bereavement: Evidence for a nonlinear association. Traumatology,18(4), 65-71. doi:10.1177/1534765612438948
  • Currier, J.; Irish, J.; Neimeyer, R. A.; Foster, J. (2015). Attachment, Continuing Bonds and Complicated Grief Following Violent Loss: Testing a Moderated Model. Death Studies 39: 201-210. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2014.975869
  • Chapple, A.; Chris, Swift, C; Ziebland, S. (2011). The role of spirituality and religion for those bereaved due to a traumatic death. Mortality 16: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576275.2011.535998
  • Davis, C. G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, S.; Larson, S. (1998). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561–574. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561
  • De Luca, M.L.; Grossi, G.; Zacarello, G.; Greco, R.; Tineri, M.; Slavic, E.; Altomonte, A.; Palummieri, A. (2016). Adaptation and validation of the “Continuing Bond Scale” in an Italian context. An instrument for studying the persistence of the bond with the deceased in normal and abnormal grief. International Journal of Psychoanalysis and Education 8, 2, 37-52.
  • Dillen, L.; Fontaine, J. R.; Verhofstadt-Denève, L. (2009). Confirming the distinctiveness of complicated grief from depression and anxiety among adolescents. Death Studies, 33(5), 437-461. Doi: 10.1080/07481180902805673
  • Eisma, M. C.; Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, M. S.; Boelen, P. A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, W. (2015). Adaptive and maladaptive rumination after loss: A three‐wave longitudinal study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(2), 163–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12067
  • Eisma, M. C.; Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, W.; Boelen, P. A.; van den Bout, J. (2013). Avoidance processes mediate the relationship between rumination and symptoms of complicated grief and depression following loss. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(4), 961–970. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034051
  • Estevan-Burdeus P,; et al. (2016). Duelo prolongado y factores asociados. Psicooncología 13(2-3), 2016, pp. 399-415. https://doi.org/10.5209/PSIC.54444
  • Faschingbauer, T. R. (1981). Texas Revised Inventory of Grief manual. Houston: Honeycomb Publishing.
  • Faschingbauer, T. R.; Zisook, S.; De Vaul, R. (1987). The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. En S. Zisook (Ed.), Biopsychosocial aspects of bereavement (pp. 109-124). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. DOI: 10.1080/07481180590923706
  • Field, N.P. (2006). Unresolved grief and continuing bonds: an attachment perspective. Death Studies. 30, 739-756. DOI: 10.1080/07481180600850518
  • Field, N. P.; Filanosky, C. (2010). Continuing Bonds, Risk Factors for Complicated Grief, and Ad-justment to Bereavement. Death Studies, 34, 1-29. DOI: 10.1080/07481180903372269
  • Field, N. P.; Gal-Oz, E.; Bonanno, G. A. (2003). Continuing Bonds and Adjustment at 5 Years After the Death of a Spouse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 110-117. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.110
  • Field, N.P.; Gao, B.; Paderna, L. (2005). Continuing bonds in bereavement: an attachment theory based perspective. Death Studies, 29 (4), 277-299. Doi: 10.1080/07481180590923689
  • Field, N. P.; Nichols, C.; Holen, A.; Horowitz, M. J. (1999). The relation of continuing attachment to adjustment in conjugal bereavement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.2.212
  • Field, N. P.; Packman, W.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2004). Continuing bonds interview. (Available from Field or Packman, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, 1791. Arastradero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304.)
  • Field, N.P.; Packman, W.; Ronen, R.; Pries, A.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2013). Type of continuing bonds expression and its comforting versus distressing nature: implications for adjustment among bereaved mothers. Death Studies. 37, 889-912. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2012.692458
  • Foster, T.; Gilmer, M.; Davies, B.; Dietrich, M.; Barrera, M.; Fairalough, D.; Vannatta, K.; Gerhardt, C. (2011). Comparison of continuing bonds reported by parents and siblings after a child's death from cancer. National Institutes of Health Public Access, 35 (5), 420-440. Doi: HYPERLINK "https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F07481187.2011.553308" t "pmc_ext" 10.1080 / 07481187.2011.553308
  • Freud, S. ([1917] 1973). Duelo y Melancolía. Obras Completas, Vol. XIV. Madrid. Biblioteca Nueva, pp. 235-255.
  • Fuchs, T. (2018). Presence in absence. The ambiguous phenomenology of grief. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17, 43–63 DOI 10.1007/s11097-017-9506-2
  • Gamba-Collazos, H. A.; Navia, C. E. (2017). Adaptación del Inventario de Duelo Complicado en población colombiana. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 26(1), 15-30. Doi: 10.15446/rcp.v26n1.51205
  • García-García, J. A.; Landa, V.; Trigueros, M. C.; Gaminde, I. (2001). Inventario de Experiencias de Duelo (IED): adaptación al castellano, fiabilidad y validez. Atención Primaria, 27(2), 86-93.
  • García-García, J. A.; Landa, V.; Trigueros, M. C.; Gaminde, I. (2005). Inventario Texas Revisado de Duelo (ITRD): adaptación al castellano, fiabilidad y validez. Atención Primaria, 35(7), 353-358.
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2008). Continuidad de los lazos entre madres y padres y sus hijos fallecidos. Experiencia con padres participantes en un grupo de duelo. Ene, 2 (3), 34-44. Recuperado de: http://ene-enfermeria.org/ojs/index.php/ENE/article/view/177/160
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2005). Sueños y muerte en los miembros de la comunidad bahá'í de las islas Canarias. AIBR. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana, 40: 1-21.
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2008). Continuidad de lazos entre madres y padres y sus hijos fallecidos. Experiencia con padres participantes en un grupo de duelo. Ene, 3: 34-44.
  • García-Hernández, A. M. (2010). Vivir el duelo. La experiencia de perder un hijo. Tenerife: Ediciones Idea.
  • García-Hernández, A. M. (2012). La pérdida y el duelo. Una experiencia compartida. España: Editor Bubok Publishing S. L.
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2016). El duelo. En Enfermería Comunitaria II (cap. 45). pp. 901-918. Ediciones DAE (Grupo Paradigma).
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2017). Narrativas y continuidad de vínculos en padres que perdieron hijos. Majorensis, 13:118-125.
  • García-Hernández, A.M. (2017). Duelo y causalidad. Cultura de los Cuidados (Edición digital), 21(49). Recuperado de http://dx.doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2017.49.06
  • García-Hernández, A. M. (2019). Benito… a propósito de Josué. Un estudio fenomenológico del duelo por la muerte de un hijo. Ene, 11: 1-13.
  • García-Hernández, A M. (2020). Continuidad de vínculos. El caso de estudio de Candelaria versus Tamara de causalidades significativas. Majorensis, 16:74-78.
  • García-Hernández, A.M.; Rodríguez, M.; Brito, P.R. (2016). Object repertoires that evoke memories for mothers and fathers who have lost children. Tenerife. Spain. Majorensis, 12: 12-21.
  • García-Hernández, A. M.; et al. (2018). Continuidad de vínculos y duelo: nuevas perspectivas. Health, Aging & End of Life, 3, pp. 49-65
  • Gee, T. (2009). Honouring the Spiritual Dimension for Survivors: The Development of a Hocokah or Healing Circle. Paper presented at the International Association of Suicide Prevention’s World Congress, Montevideo, Uruguay, Octubre 27–31.
  • Haley, E. (22 de marzo de 2018). 5 things you should know about Continuing Bonds [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://thefuneralfriend.com/index.php/2018/03/22/five-things-you-should-know-about-continuing-bonds/
  • Hill, E. (2013). Continuing attachment bonds to the deceased: a study of bereavement youth and their caregivers. (Tesis de posgrado) University of South Florida, Estados Unidos.
  • Hogan, N.S.; Greenfield, D.B.; Schmidth, L. A. (2001). Development and validation of the Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist. Death Studies, 25(1):1-32. Doi: 10.1080/07481180125831.
  • Holland, J. M.; Currier, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2006). Meaning reconstruction in the first two years of bereavement: The role of sense-making and benefit-finding. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 53, 175–191. doi:10.2190/FKM2-YJTY-F9VV-9XWY
  • Irwin, M. (2015). Mourning 2.0 continuing bonds between the living and the dead on facebook. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying, 72 (2), 119-150. Doi: 10.1177/0030222815574830
  • Jahn, D.R.; Spencer –Thomas, S. (2018). A Qualitative Examination of Continuing Bonds through Spiritual Experiences in Individuals Bereaved by Suicide. Religions 9, 248; doi:10.3390/rel9080248
  • Jordan, J.R.; Baker, J.; Matteis, M.; Rosenthal, S.; Ware, E.S. (2005). The grief evaluation measure (GEM): an initial validation study. Death Studies, 29: 301-332, Doi: 10.1080/07481180590923706
  • Keesee, N. J.; Currier, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2008). Predictors of grief following the death of one’s child: The contribution of finding meaning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 1145–1163. Doi:10.1002/jclp.20502
  • Kersting, A.; Brahler, E.; Glaesmer, H.; Wagner, B. (2011).Prevalence of complicated grief in a representative population-based sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 13,339–343. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.032
  • Klass, D. (2006). Continuing conversation about continuing bonds. Death Studies, 30, 843-858. doi: 10.1080/07481180600886959
  • Klass, D.; Silverman, P.R.; Nickman, S.L. (1996). Continuing Bonds. London und Philadelphia.
  • Klass, D.; Walter, T. (2001). Processes of Grieving: How Bonds are Continued. En Margaret S. Stroebe, Robert O. Hansson, Wolfgang Stroebe, and Henk Schut eds., Handbook of Bereavement Research: Consequence, Coping, and Care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Kokou, Kpolou, K.; Megalakaki, O.; Nieuviarts, N. (2018). Persistent depressive and grief symptoms for up to 10 years following perinatal loss: Involvement of negative cognitions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 241, 360–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.063
  • Kristjanson, L.J.; Cousins, K.; Smith, J.; Lewin, G., (2005). Evaluation of the Bereavement Risk Index (BRI): a community hospice care control. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 11 (12), 610-618.
  • Kwilecki, S. (2009). Twenty-First Century American Ghosts: The After-Death Communication-Therapy and Revelation from Beyond the Grave. Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation 19: 101–33. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/rac.2009.19.1.101
  • Latham, A. E.; Prigerson, H. G. (2004). Suicidality and bereavement: Complicated grief as psychiatric disorder presenting greatest risk for suicidality. Suicide & Life Threatening Behavior, 34(4), 350–362. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.34.4.350.53737
  • Lenferink, L. I. M.; Eisma, M. C. (2018). 37,650 ways to have “persistent complex bereavement disorder” yet only 48 ways to have “prolonged grief disorder”. Psychiatry Research 261, 88-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.050
  • Lichtenthal, W. G., Neimeyer, R. A., Currier, J. M., Roberts, K., & Jordan, N. (2013). Cause of death and the quest for meaning after the loss of a child. Death Studies, 37, 311–342. doi:10.1080/07481187.2012.673533
  • Lichtenthal, W. G., Currier, J. M., Neimeyer, R., & Keesee, N. (2010). Sense and significance: A mixed methods examination of meaning making after the loss of one’s child. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 791–812. doi:10.1002/jclp.20700
  • Limonero, J. T.; Lacasta, M.; García, J. A.; Maté, J.; Prigerson, H. G. (2009). Adaptación al castellano del inventario de duelo complicado. Medicina Paliativa, 16(5), 291-297.
  • Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 141-148.
  • Lundorff, M.; Holmgren, H.; Zachariae, R.; Farver‐Vestergaard, I.; O’Connor, M. (2017). Prevalence of prolonged grief disorder in adult bereavement: A systematic review and meta analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 212, 138–149.
  • Lyn, L. (24 de febrero de 2014). Continuing bonds theory of grief. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://www.aftertalk.com/blog/grieving-process-aftertalk-continuing-bonds-theory/
  • Machin, L. (2001). Exploring a framework for understanding the range of response to loss; a study of clients receiving bereavement counselling. (Tesis doctoral). Keele University, UK.
  • Machin, L.; Spall, R. (2004). Mapping Grief: a study in practice using a quantitative and qualitative approach to exploring and addressing the range of response to loss. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 4 (1), 9-17.
  • Machin, L. (2007). The Adult Attitude to Grief Scale as a Tool of Practice for Counsellors Working with Bereaved People. A study report sponsored by Age Concern, Tameside and Keele University.
  • Machin, L. (2009, 2014) Working with Loss and Grief. London: Sage.
  • Marris, P. (1974). Loss and change. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Mei, L.; Jie, L.I.; Kan, SHI. (2015). Chinese Version of Continuing Bonds Scale: Validation and Preliminary Application. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 23 (2). 251-255. Doi: 10.16128/j.cnki.1005-3611.2015.02.014
  • Melliar-Smith, C. (2002). The risk assessment of bereavement in a palliative care setting. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 8 (6), 281-287.
  • Miles, L. (2010). Continuing bonds: childhood sibling loss and its perceived long - them outcomes: a project based upon an independent investigation. (Tesis de maestría). Smith College, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos.
  • Morina, N. (2011). Rumination and avoidance as predictors of prolonged grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress in female widowed survivors of war. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(12), 921–927. Doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182392aae
  • Neimeyer, R. A. (Ed.). (2001). Meaning reconstruction and the experience of loss. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Neimeyer, R. A. (2004). Fostering posttraumatic growth: A narrative contribution. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 53–59.
  • Neimeyer, R. A. (2016). Meaning reconstruction in the wake of loss: Evolution of a research program. Behavior Change, 33, 65–79. Doi:10.1017/bec.2016.4
  • Neimeyer, R.A.; Hogan, N.S. (2001). Quantitative or qualitative? Measurement issues in the study of grief. In: Stroebe, M.S.; Hansson, R.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H., editors. Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care. American Psychological Association. Washington. p. 89-118.
  • Neimeyer, R.; Baldwin, S.; Gillies, J. (2006). Continuing bonds and reconstructing meaning: mitigating complications in bereavement. Death Studies, 30 (8), 715-738. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600848322
  • Neimeyer, R. A.; Burke, L. A.; Mackay, M.; Van Dyke Stringer, J. G. (2010). Grief therapy and the reconstruction of meaning: From principles to practice. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 40, 73–83. doi: 10.1007/s10879-009-9135-3
  • Newson, R. S.; Boelen, P. A.; Hek, K.; Hofman, A.; Tiemeier, H. (2011). The prevalence and characteristics of complicated grief in older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 231-238. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.02.021
  • O’Malley, P. (23 de enero de 2018). Continuing bonds [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://drpatrickomalley.com/continuing-bonds/
  • Ott, C. H. (2003). The impact of complicated grief on mental and physical health at various points in the bereavement process. Death Studies, 27(3), 249-272. Doi: 10.1080/07481180390137044
  • Packman, W.; Horsley, H.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2006). Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds. Death Studies, 30 (9), 817-841. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600886603
  • Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 257–301. Doi: 10.1037/a0018301
  • Parkes, C.M.; Weiss, R.S. (1983). Recovery from bereavement. New York: Basic Books.
  • Patel, S. R.; Cole, A.; Little, V.; Skritskaya, N. A.; Lever, E.; Dixon, L. B.; Shear, M. K. (2018). Acceptability, feasibility and outcome of a screening programme for complicated grief in integrated primary and behavioural health care clinics. Family Practice, 36, 125–131. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmy050.
  • Piper, W. E.; Ogrodniczuk, J. S.; Azim, H. F.; Weideman, R. (2001). Prevalence of loss and complicated grief among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatric Services, 52(8), 1069–1074.
  • Pincus, L. (1976). Death and the Family, London: Faber.
  • Prigerson H. G. (2004). Complicated grief. Bereavement Care, 23(3), 38-40. Doi: 10.1080/02682620408657612
  • Prigerson, H.; Ahmed, I.; Silverman, G. K.; Saxena, A. K.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Jacobs, S. C.; Kasl, S. V.; Aqeel, N.; Hamirani, M. (2002). Rates and risks of complicated grief among psychiatric patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Death Studies, 26(10), 781–792. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180290106571
  • Prigerson, H. G.; Bierhals, A. J.; Kasl, S. V.; Reynols III, C. F.; Shear, M. K.; Newsom, J. T.; Jacobs, S. (1996). Complicated grief as a disorder distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety: A replication study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(11), 1484-1486.
  • Prigerson, H. G.; Horowitz, M. J.; Jacobs, S. C.;Parkes, C. M.; Aslan, M.; Goodkin, K.; Beverly, R.; Marwit, S.J.; Wortman, C.; Neimeyer, R. A.; Bonanno, G.; Block, S. D.; Kissane, D.; Boelen, P.; Maercker, A.; Litz, B. T.; Johnson J. G.; First, M. B; Maciejewski, P. K. (2009). Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Medicine, 6, 1000121. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000121
  • Prigerson, H. G; Jacobs, S. C. (2001). Traumatic grief as a distinct disorder: A rationale, consensus criteria, and a preliminary empirical test. En M. Stroebe, R. O. Hansson, W. Stroebe, y H. Schut (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, & care (pp. 613–635). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Prigerson, H. G.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Reynolds, C. F.; Bierhals, A. J.; Newsom, J. T.; Fasiczka, A.; Frank, E.; Doman, J.; Miller, M. (1995). Inventory of complicated grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry Research, 59(1–2), 65–79. Doi: 10.1016/0165-1781(95)02757-2
  • Rizzuto, A. M. (1979). The Birth of the Living God: A Psychoanalytic Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Rodríguez-Álvaro, M. (2019). Impacto del duelo complicado. Una lectura a través del lenguaje del cuidado. Ene, 13(3). Consultado de http://ene-enfermeria.org/ojs/index.php/ENE/article/view/915
  • Root, B.L.; Exline, J.J. (2014). The Role of Continuing Bonds in Coping with Grief: Overview and Future Directions. Death Studies 38: 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2012.712608
  • Root, B.; Juola, J. (2014). The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions. Death Studies, 38 (1), 1-8. Doi: 10.1080/07481187.2012.71260
  • Rosner, R.; Pfoh, G.; Kotoučová, M. (2011). Treatment of complicated grief. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2. Doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.7995
  • Rozalski, V.; Holland, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2016). Circumstances of death and complicated grief. Indirect associations through meaning made of loss. Journal of Loss and Trauma. Doi: 10.1080/15325024.2016.1161426
  • Sanders, C. M.; Mauger, P. A.; Strong, P. N. (1985). A manual for the Grief Experience Inventory. The Center of the Study of Separation and Loss: Charlotte.
  • Simon, N. M.; Wall, M. M.; Keshaviah, A.; Dryman, M. T.; LeBlanc, N. J.; Shear, M. K. (2011). Informing the symptom profile of complicate grief. Depression and Anxiety, 28(2), 118-126. Doi: 10.1002/da.20775
  • Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, M. S.; Boelen, P. A.; Zijerveld, A. M. (2006). Continuing relationships with the deceased: Disentangling bonds and grief. Death Studies, 30, 757 – 766. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180600850666
  • Shear, M.K.; Simon, N.; Wall, M.; Zisook, S.; Neimeyer, R.A; Duan, N.; Reynolds C.; Lebowitz B.; Sung S.; Ghesquiere A.; Gorscak B.; Clayton P.; Ito M.; Nakajima S.; Konishi T.; Melhem N.; Meert K.; Schiff M.; O'Connor MF.; First M.; Sareen J.; Bolton J.; Skritskaya N.; Mancini AD.; Keshaviah A. (2011). Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 103–117. doi:10.1002/da.20780
  • Shuchter, S. R.; Zisook, S. (1986). Treatment of spousal bereavement: A multidimensional approach. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 295-305. https://doi.org/10.3928/0048-5713-19860501-09
  • Silverman, P. (5 de mayo de 2010). Thinking about continuing bonds. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/raising-grieving-children/201005/thinking-about-continuing-bonds
  • Silverman, P.R., Nickman, S.L. (1996). Children's Construction of Their Dead Parent. En Dennis Klass, Phyllis R. Silverman, and Steven L. Nickman eds., Continuing Bonds: A New Understanding of Grief. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
  • Sim, J.; Machin, L.; Bartlam, B. (2014).Identifying vulnerability in grief: psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief Scale. Quality of Life Research 23:1211-1220. DOI 10.1007/s11136-013-0551-1
  • Steffen, E. M.; Coyle, A. (2010). Can “Sense of Presence” experiences in bereavement be conceptualized as spiritual phenomena? Mental Health, Religion and Culture 13: 273–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670903357844
  • Stroebe, M. (2018). The Poetry of Grief: Beyond Scientific Portrayal. OMEGA. Journal of Death and Dying, 78 (1) 67-96. DOI: 10.1177/0030222818792706
  • Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. (2005a). Complicated grief: A conceptual analysis of the field. Omega, 52, 53-70.
  • Stroebe, M.; Schut, H. (2005b). To continue or relinquish bonds: a review of consequences for the bereaved. Death Studies, 29, 47-494. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180590962659
  • Szanto, K.; Shear, M. K.; Houck, P. R.; Reynolds, C. F., 3rd; Frank, E., Caroff, K.; Silowash, R. (2006). Indirect self destructive behavior and overt suicidality in patients with complicated grief. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(2), 233–239. DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v67n0209
  • Tal, I.; Mauro, C.; Reynolds, C. F.; Shear, M. K.; Simon, N.; Lebowitz, B.; Skitskaya, N.; Wang, Y.; Qiu, X.; Iglewicz, A.; Glorioso, D.; Avanzino, J.; Wertherell, J. L.; Karp, J. F.; Robinaugh, D.; Zisook, S. (2017). Complicated grief after suicide bereavement and other causes of death. Death Studies, 41(5), 267–275. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2016.1265028
  • Terranova, J. (22 de marzo de 2018). Grief theories series: continuing bonds theory. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://www.frazerconsultants.com/2018/03/grief-theories-series-continuing-bonds-theory/
  • Toedter, L.J.; Lasker, J.N.; Alhadeff, J. M. (1988). The perinatal grief: Development and initial validation. American Orthopsychiatric Association 58 (3) 435-449.
  • Unruh, D.R. (1983). Death and personal history: Strategies of identity preservation. Social Problems, 30(3) 240-251. https://doi.org/10.2307/800358
  • Wasielewski, M. (14 de septiembre de 2015). What is the continuing bonds theory? And is it recommended? [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-continuing-bonds-theory-recommended-mary-ellen-wasielewski
  • Williams, L. (17 de febrero de 2014). Continuing bonds: shifting the grief paradigm. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://whatsyourgrief.com/continuing-bonds-shifting-the-grief-paradigm/
  • Wood, L.; Byram, A.; Gosling, S.; Stokes. J. (2012). Continuing Bonds after Suicide Bereavement in Childhood. Death Studies 36: 873–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2011.584025
  • World Health Organization. ICD-11. International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision. https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en
  • Wortmann, J. H.; Park, C. L. (2008). Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review. Death Studies 32: 703–36. DOI: 10.1080/07481180802289507
  • Yi, P. (2015). Factores de riesgo de duelo complicado en cuidados paliativos (Tesis Doctoral). Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia.
  • Yu, W.; He, L.; Xu, W.; Wang J.; Prigerson, H.G. (2016). How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds. Psychiatry Research 238, 93-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.030
  • Ziółkowska, J.; Galasiński, D.; Bajkowska, N. (2015). Continuing bonds from a discourse analytic perspective. Rev. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 46 (4), 587-593. Doi: 10.1515/ppb-2015-0065