Análisis de la formación inicial en diversidad afectivo-sexual desde la perspectiva del alumnado de 4º curso de los títulos de grado en Educación Primaria de las universidades públicas de Andalucía

  1. Márquez Díaz, José Ramón
Dirigida per:
  1. María José Carrasco Macías Director/a
  2. José Manuel Coronel Llamas Director/a

Universitat de defensa: Universidad de Huelva

Fecha de defensa: 11 de d’abril de 2023

  1. Fernando Barragán Medero President
  2. Emilia Moreno Sánchez Secretari/ària
  3. Marius Ciprian Ceobanu Vocal

Tipus: Tesi


At present, many people, in addition to different public and private institutions, consider essential to promote a social mobilization in favor of quality education for sexuality, an education based on scientific bases as a fundamental strategy to advance the sexual rights agenda. However, there are researchers who emphasize the idea that one of the biggest problems in society derives from the non-acceptance of minority groups, for instance, Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Trans (LGBT+), among other collectives, all of them closely related to affective-sexual diversity, which tends to be made invisible as it has been done throughout history, leading to not being treated as a normalized phenomenon. Furthermore, there are people who think that there is a specific way of experiencing sexuality, going so far as to discredit the phenomenon of affective-sexual diversity, when several authors have highlighted that this phenomenon is characterized by having been present in all species over time, a fact that has given to treating it from an evolutionary and natural perspective, where the human being should not be excluded. Consequently, a social image has been created based on negative attitudes towards people who are not within a certain normalized context, an image that, in a certain way, has had an impact, among other things, on the increase in the number of cases of homophobic harassment. Following the previous line, although homophobia is present in various contexts of society, it is accentuated in some more than others, for example, in the educational field, where people are increasingly diverse and, in turn, more homogeneous. Given this fact, teachers and future teachers must be trained in the topic of affective-sexual diversity, since they form an active and elementary part in the work of preventing, detecting, intervening, and eradicating violence in educational institutions. Based on these premises, the general objective of this research is to analyze initial training in affective-sexual diversity, as well as possible homophobic attitudes from the perspective of 4th year students of the bachelor’s degree in Primary Education (GEP) of the public universities of Andalusia. For this, a mixed methodology (quantitative and qualitative) was used, making use of the following research instruments and techniques: the questionnaire and the interview. 1404 students of the 4th year of the GEP titles of the public universities of Andalusia participated. Regarding the treatment of quantitative data, a general descriptive analysis is carried out based on frequencies and percentages, in addition to using the ANOVA statistic of one factor for the comparison of means in each of the groups to be contrasted. For the statistical analysis of the data, the SPSS statistical software was used, in its version 20.0. For its part, regarding the treatment of qualitative data, the coding technique has been used, making use of a system of categories. The analysis of the qualitative data was carried out in the traditional way, applying a different color to each dimension of analysis. The results allow us to affirm that the students participating in the Doctoral Thesis, for the most part, present low levels of homophobia, do not have the necessary knowledge to attend to the affective-sexual diversity existing in educational institutions, among other contexts, and express special interest in receiving training on this subject. In the same way, we can highlight that dependency relationships have been found between types of homophobia and heterosexual people. Specifically, about knowledge about affective-sexual diversity, we are faced with a low percentage of correct answers. They are 50.4% for the dimension of analysis related to knowledge about sexual roles, 26.4% for the dimension of analysis related to knowledge about sexual behaviors, 23.8% for the dimension of analysis related to knowledge on the realities of LGBT+ youth and 18.7% for the dimension of analysis related to knowledge about sexuality in animals. Considering homophobic attitudes, the results obtained show that the students who have participated in this investigation show few homophobic attitudes in the three types of homophobias analyzed. Specifically, the average percentage of homophobic attitudes related to each type of homophobia analyzed is as follows: cultural homophobia (2.6%), symbolic homophobia (7.4%) and institutional homophobia (8%). Likewise, significant differences were found between the three types of homophobias (cultural homophobia, symbolic homophobia, and institutional homophobia) and students whose sexual orientation is heterosexual. In the same way, it is suggested that the training in affective-sexual diversity offered in GEP degrees and, more broadly, in universities is very scarce, almost non-existent. In addition to this, the students, in general terms, show that universities do not design, do not implement, and do not evaluate measures (prevention, detection and intervention) to promote positive attitudes towards affective-sexual diversity. It concludes with the idea that we are facing a theme, affective-sexual diversity, essential in the initial training of future teachers, a theme, through which one could, on the one hand, prevent discriminatory behaviors towards certain groups of individuals, thus favoring the social inclusion of all students, among other agents involved in educational institutions; and, on the other hand, to create a university free of violence in its different manifestations.