The importance of perceived risk in destination image and its effects on behavioral intention

  1. Diana Martín Azami 1
  2. Francisco Javier Ramos Real 1
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España


Pasos: Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural

ISSN: 1695-7121

Year of publication: 2019

Volume: 17

Issue: 5

Pages: 915-928

Type: Article

DOI: 10.25145/J.PASOS.2019.17.065 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openRIULL editor

More publications in: Pasos: Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural


Cited by

  • Scopus Cited by: 9 (13-11-2023)
  • Web of Science Cited by: 7 (14-10-2023)
  • Dimensions Cited by: 7 (12-04-2023)

Índice Dialnet de Revistas

  • Year 2019
  • Journal Impact: 0.580
  • Field: ECONOMÍA Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 24/172
  • Field: ANTROPOLOGÍA Quartile: C1 Rank in field: 2/32


  • Social Sciences: B

Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)

  • Year 2019
  • Journal Citation Indicator (JCI): 0.18
  • Best Quartile: Q4
  • Area: HOSPITALITY, LEISURE, SPORT & TOURISM Quartile: Q4 Rank in area: 107/129


(Data updated as of 12-04-2023)
  • Total citations: 7
  • Recent citations: 6
  • Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 3.41


In this work we analyze the process by which the decision of visiting a destination is the result of evaluating its image, being risk an important factor that has an effect on the destination’s image. Taking the previous literature into account, and considering the multidimensional character of these two constructs, we propose a classification of the different approaches that link risk and image with behavioral intention. This work, without being an exhaustive review of the literature, clarifies the state in which the study of this subject is found and gives guidance to the researchers in this field.

Bibliographic References

  • Adam, I. 2015. Backpackers’ risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies in Ghana. Tourism Management, 49, 99‑108.
  • Ahmed, Z. U. 1996. The need for the identification of the constituents of a destination’s tourist image: A promotion segmentation perspective. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 14(1), 37‑60.
  • Alvarez, M. D., and Campo, S. 2014. The influence of political conflicts on country image and intention to visit: A study of Israel’s image. Tourism Management, 40, 70‑78.
  • Agapito, D., Oom do Valle, P., and da Costa Mendes, J. 2013. The cognitive‑affective‑conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471‑481.
  • Baloglu, S., and Brinberg, D. 1997. Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11‑15.
  • Baloglu, S., and McCleary, K. W. 1999. A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868‑897.
  • Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173‑1182.
  • Bauer, R. A. 1960. Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking. In R. S. Hancock ed., Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World (389‑398). American Marketing Association: Chicago.
  • Beerli, A., and Martín, J. 2004a. Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5), 623‑636.
  • Beerli, A., and Martín, J. D. 2004b. Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 657‑681.
  • Bigné, J. E., Sánchez, M. I., and Sánchez, J. 2001. Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: Inter‑relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607‑616.
  • Bigné, J.E., Sánchez, M.I., and Sanz, S. 2009. The functional‑psychological continuum in the cognitive image of a destination: A confirmatory analysis. Tourism management, 30(5), 715‑723.
  • Chen, N., and Funk, D. C. 2010. Exploring destination image, experience and revisit intention: A com‑ parison of sport and non‑sport tourist perceptions. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 15(3), 239‑259.
  • Chen, J. S., and Hsu, C. H. 2000. Measurement of Korean tourists’ perceived images of overseas destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 38(4), 411‑416.
  • Chen, P. J., and Kerstetter, D. L. 1999. International students’ image of rural Pennsylvania as a travel destination. Journal of Travel Research, 37(3), 256‑266.
  • Chen, C., and Tsai, D. 2007. How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115‑1122.
  • Cheron, E. J., and Ritchie, J. R. 1982. Leisure activities and perceived risk. Journal of Leisure Research, 14(2), 139‑154.
  • Chew, E. Y. T., and Jahari, S. A. 2014. Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: A case of post‑disaster Japan. Tourism Management, 40, 382‑393.
  • Chon, K. 1990. The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion. The Tourist Review, 45(2), 2‑9.
  • Cohen, E. 1972. Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 39, 164‑182.
  • Court, B., and Lupton, R. A. 1997. Customer portfolio development: Modeling destination adopters, inactives, and rejecters. Journal of Travel Research, 36(1), 35‑43.
  • Crompton, J. L. 1979. An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of Travel Research, 17(4), 18‑23.
  • Dann, G. M. 1996. Tourists’ images of a destination‑an alternative analysis. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 5(1‑2), 41‑55.
  • Dolnicar, S. 2005. Fear segments in tourism. CD Proceedings of the 14th International Research Conference of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), 1‑5 February 2005, Australia.
  • Dowling, G. R., and Staelin, R. 1994. A model of perceived risk and intended risk‑handling activity. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 119‑134.
  • Echtner, C. M., and Ritchie, J. B. 1991. The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(2), 2‑12.
  • Fakeye, P. C., and Crompton, J. L. 1991. Image differences between prospective, first‑time, and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 10‑16.
  • Floyd, M. F., Gibson, H., Pennington‑Gray, L., and Thapa, B. 2004. The effect of risk perceptions on intentions to travel in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 15(2‑3), 19‑38.
  • Fuchs, G., and Reichel, A. 2006. Tourist destination risk perception: The case of Israel. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 14(2), 83‑108.
  • Fuchs, G., and Reichel, A. 2011. An exploratory inquiry into destination risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies of first time vs. repeat visitors to a highly volatile destination. Tourism Management, 32(2), 266‑276.
  • Fuchs, G. 2013. Low versus high sensation‐seeking tourists: a study of backpackers’ experience risk perception. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 81‑92.
  • Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., and Garcı a, H. C. 2002. Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 56‑78.
  • Gartner, W. C. 1989. Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2), 16‑20.
  • Gartner, W. C. 1994. Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2‑3), 191‑216.
  • Gartner, W. C., and Shen, J. 1992. The impact of Tiananmen Square on China’s tourism image. Journal of Travel Research, 30(4), 47‑52.
  • Gartner, W. C., and Hunt, J. D. 1987. An analysis of state image change over a twelve‑year period (1971‑1983). Journal of Travel Research, 26(2), 15‑19.
  • Gibson, H. J., Qi, C. X., and Zhang, J. J. 2008. Destination image and intent to visit China and the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Management, 22(4), 427‑450.
  • Gitelson, R. J., and Crompton, J. L. 1983. The planning horizons and sources of information used by pleasure vacationers. Journal of Travel Research, 21(3), 2‑7.
  • Goodrich, J. N. 1978. The relationship between preferences for and perceptions of vacation destinations: Application of a choice model. Journal of Travel research, 17(2), 8‑13.
  • Gunn, C. A. 1988. Vacationscape: Designing tourist regions (2nd ed.). Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York.
  • Hallmann, K., Zehrer, A., and Müller, S. 2015. Perceived destination image: An image model for a winter sports destination and its effect on intention to revisit. Journal of Travel Research, 54(1), 94‑106.
  • Hamouda, M., and Yacoub, I. 2018. Explaining visit intention involving eWOM, perceived risk motivations and destination image. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 6(1), 65‑82.
  • Huang, Y., Tseng, Y., and Yiap, L. 2013. Image recovery of the resurrected seashore city‑New Orleans, Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research, 29(2), 430‑437.
  • Hui, T. K., and Wan, T. W. D. 2003. Singapore’s image as a tourist destination. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5(4), 305‑313.
  • Hunt, J. D. 1975. Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1‑7.
  • Jacoby, J., and Kaplan, L. B. 1972. The components of perceived risk. Advances in Consumer Research, 3(3), 382‑383.
  • Kani, Y., Aziz, Y. A., Sambasivan, M., and Bojei, J. 2017. Antecedents and outcomes of destination image of Malaysia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 89‑98.
  • Kaplan, L. B., Szybillo, G. J., and Jacoby, J. 1974. Components of perceived risk in product purchase: A cross‑validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(3), 287‑291.
  • Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., and Kupfer, D. 2001. How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American journal of psychiatry, 158(6), 848‑856.
  • Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., and Law, R. 2007. The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233‑242.
  • Law, R. 2006. The perceived impact of risks on travel decisions. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(4), 289‑300.
  • Lehto, X., Douglas, A. C., and Park, J. 2008. Mediating the effects of natural disasters on travel intention. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 23(2‑4), 29‑43.
  • Lepp, A., and Gibson, H. 2003. Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 606‑624.
  • Lin, Y. H., Wu, C. Y., and Chang, J. 2006. Destination image and visit intention among members of Yahoo!‑Taiwan’s travel communities: an online survey approach. Tourism Analysis, 11(1), 61‑69.
  • Maser, B., and Weiermair, K. 1998. Travel decision‑making: From the vantage point of perceived risk and information preferences. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 7(4), 107‑121.
  • Milman, A., and Pizam, A. 1995. The role of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The Central Florida case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 21‑27.
  • Mowen, J. C., and Minor, M. 1998. Consumer behavior (5th. ed.). Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey.
  • Noh, J., and Vogt, C. 2013. Modelling information use, image, and perceived risk with intentions to travel to East Asia. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(5), 455‑476.
  • Olague, J.T., Flores, C.A. and Garza, J.B. 2017. El efecto de la motivación de viaje sobre la satisfacción del turista a través de las dimensiones de la imagen del destino: El caso del turismo urbano de ocio a Monterrey, México. Investigaciones Turísticas, (14), 109‑129.
  • Perpiña, L., Camprubí, R., and Prats, L. 2017. Destination image versus risk perception. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. doi:10.1177/1096348017704497.
  • Phillips, W. J., and Jang, S. 2010. Destination image differences between visitors and non‐visitors: a case of New York city. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 642‑645.
  • Pike, S. 2002. Destination image analysis—a review of 142 papers from 1973 to 2000. Tourism Mana‑ gement, 23(5), 541‑549.
  • Pike, S., and Ryan, C. 2004. Destination positioning analysis through a comparison of cognitive, affective, and conative perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(4), 333‑342.
  • Plog, S. C. 1974. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 14(4), 55‑58.
  • Prayag, G. 2009. Tourists’evaluations of destination image, satisfaction, and future behavioral inten‑ tions—the case of Mauritius. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 836‑853.
  • Qi, C. X., Gibson, H. J., and Zhang, J. J. 2009. Perceptions of risk and travel intentions: The case of China and the Beijing Olympic Games. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14(1), 43‑67.
  • Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., and Soutar, G. N. 2010. Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797‑805.
  • Ramkissoon, H., Uysal, M., and Brown, K. 2011. Relationship between destination image and beha‑ vioral intentions of tourists to consume cultural attractions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(5), 575‑595.
  • Reichel, A., Fuchs, G., and Uriely, N. 2007. Perceived risk and the non‑institutionalized tourist role: The case of israeli student ex‑backpackers. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 217‑226.
  • Reisinger, Y., and Mavondo, F. 2005. Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212‑225.
  • Rittichainuwat, B. N., Qu, H., and Brown, T. J. 2001. Thailand’s international travel image: Mostly favorable. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(2), 82‑95.
  • Rittichainuwat, B. N., and Chakraborty, G. 2009. Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: The case of Thailand. Tourism Management, 30(3), 410‑418.
  • Roehl, W. S., and Fesenmaier, D. R. 1992. Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 30(4), 17‑26.
  • Roselius, T. 1971. Consumer rankings of risk reduction methods. Journal of Marketing, 35, 56‑61. Ross, I. 1975. Perceived risk and consumer behavior: A critical review. Advances in Consumer Research, 2(1), 1‑20.
  • Ruan, W. Q., Li, Y. Q., and Liu, C. H. S. 2017. Measuring Tourism Risk Impacts on Destination Image. Sustainability, 9(9), 1501.
  • Ross, G. F. 1993. Ideal and actual images of backpacker visitors to Northern Australia. Journal of Travel Research, 32(2), 54‑57
  • Russell, J. A., and Pratt, G. 1980. A description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 311‑322.
  • San Martín, H., and Rodríguez del Bosque, I. A. 2008. Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29(2), 263‑277.
  • Schiffman, L. G., and Kanuk, L. L. 1991. Communication and consumer behavior. Consumer Behavior, 2, 268‑306.
  • Schroeder, T. 1996. The relationship of residents’ image of their state as a tourist destination and their support for tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 34(4), 71‑73.
  • Simpson, P. M., and Siguaw, J. A. 2008. Perceived travel risks: The traveller perspective and managea‑ bility. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 315‑327.
  • Sönmez, S. F. 1998. Tourism, terrorism, and political instability. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 416‑456.
  • Sönmez, S. F., and Graefe, A. R. 1998a. Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2), 171‑177.
  • Sönmez, S. F., and Graefe, A. R. 1998b. Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112‑144.
  • Sönmez, S., and Sirakaya, E. 2002. A distorted destination image? The case of Turkey. Journal of Travel Research, 41(2), 185‑196.
  • Stone, R. N., and Grønhaug, K. 1993. Perceived risk: Further considerations for the marketing disci‑ pline. European Journal of Marketing, 27(3), 39‑50.
  • Tasci, A. D., and Gartner, W. C. 2007. Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413‑425.
  • Tasci, A. D., Gartner, W. C., and Tamer Cavusgil, S. 2007. Conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 31(2), 194‑223.
  • Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., and Vassiliadis, C. A. 2017. Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60, 15‑29.
  • Tavitiyaman, P., and Qu, H. 2013. Destination image and behavior intention of travelers to Thailand: The moderating effect of perceived risk. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(3), 169‑185.
  • Tsaur, S., Tzeng, G., and Wang, K. 1997. Evaluating tourist risks from fuzzy perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(24), 796‑812.
  • Um, S., and Crompton, J. L. 1992. The roles of perceived inhibitors and facilitators in pleasure travel destination decisions. Journal of Travel Research, 30(3), 18‑25.
  • Wang, H. Y. 2015. Determinants hindering the intention of tourists to visit disaster‑hit destinations. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(5), 459‑479.
  • Wang, C. Y., and Hsu, M. K. 2010. The relationships of destination image, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: An integrated model. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 27(8), 829‑843.
  • Woodside, A. G., and Lysonski, S. 1989. A general model of traveler destination choice. Journal of Travel Research, 27(4), 8‑14.
  • Xu, J., Chan, T. L., and Pratt, S. 2017. Destination Image of Taiwan From the Perspective of Hong Kong Residents: Revisiting Structural Relationships Between Destination Image Attributes and Behavioral Intention. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 1‑23.
  • Yang, E. C. L., and Nair, V. 2015. Tourism at risk: A review of risk and perceived risk in tourism. Asia‑ ‑Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism, 3(2), 1‑21.
  • Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., and Lu, L. 2014. Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta‑analysis. Tou‑ rism Management, 40, 213‑223.