Ingesta dietética de yodo y flúor procedente del consumo de sales comestibles

  1. María del Carmen Galván Marante 1
  2. Carmen Rubio Armendáriz 1
  3. Soraya Paz Montelongo 1
  4. Ángel Gutiérrez Fernández 1
  5. Consuelo Revert Gironés 1
  6. Arturo Hardisson de la Torre 1
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna
    info

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España

    ROR https://ror.org/01r9z8p25

Journal:
Majorensis: Revista Electrónica de Ciencia y Tecnología

ISSN: 1697-5529

Year of publication: 2019

Issue: 15

Pages: 54-62

Type: Article

Abstract

Introduction: Salt is an indispensable condiment in the Mediterranean diet, so its supplementation with iodine and fluoride is completely logical. The industrial production allows its enrichment with folic acid, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, fluorine and iodine, thus allowing it to complete its contribution in the diet, which must always be carried out in a responsible manner. Objectives: To determine the content of fluoride and iodine in 30 samples of the main commercial salts and to evaluate the possible risk derived from its consumption, as well as its correspondence with the values declared in the labeling. Method: The fluoride content has been determined by fluoride selective ion potentiometry and the iodine content has been determined by oxidation-reduction titration using sodium thiosulfate. Results and Discussion: The concentrations obtained for fluorinated salts do not pose a risk, in fact, the levels of this ion are much lower than those referred to in the product labeling. On the other hand, in the case of iodized salts, the levels are similar to those declared on the package, assuming a risk for the most vulnerable age groups. The ChanteSel® salt stands out where the levels reach the maximum value (0.08 mg I / g salt). Conclusions: The consumption of fluorinated salt does not pose a risk under normal conditions, while the consumption of iodized salt could be, especially in the case of children and adolescents whose requirements are lower.

Bibliographic References

  • AESAN (Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición). Plan Cuidate +. Madrid, España [Acceso: 20/05/2019]. Disponible en: www.plancuidatemas.es
  • Astiasarán I, Martínez JA. Alimentos: Composición y Propiedades. McGraw-Hill 2000; Madrid, España.
  • Bernal J. Hormonas Tiroideas y Desarrollo Cerebral. Rev Esp Endocrinol Pediatr 2014; 5(S2): 5-8.
  • Cameán AM, Repetto M. Toxicología alimentaria. Madrid: Ediciones Díaz de Santos 2006; Madrid, España.
  • Diaz Romero, C. Fundamentos de nutrición. San Cristóbal de La Laguna: Servicio de publicaciones, Universidad de La Laguna 2012; España.
  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). Opinion of the Scientific Panel Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Fluoride. EFSA J 2005; 192:1-65.
  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine. EFSA J 2014; 12(5): 36- 60.
  • González-Weller D, Rubio C, Gutiérrez AJ, Pérez B, Hernández-Sánchez C, Caballero JM, Revert C, Hardisson A. Dietary Content and Evaluation of Metals in Four Types of Tea (White, Black, Red and Green) Consumed by the Population of the Canary Islands. Pharma Anal Acta 2015; 6: 1-10.
  • IOM (Institute of Medicine). Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press 2001; Washington, USA.
  • Jáudenes J, Hardisson A, Gutiérrez AJ, Rubio C, Revert C. Evaluación del riesgo tóxico por la presencia de fluoruro en aguas de bebida envasada consumidas en Canarias. Nutr Hosp 2015; 32 (5): 2261-2268.
  • OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud). Resumen: Ingesta de sodio en adultos y niños. World Health Organization (WHO) 2013; Ginebra, Suiza.
  • OPS (Organización Panamericana de la Salud). Manual para el monitoreo de sal fortificada con yodo. Panamá: Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). Ministerio de Salud 2011; Madrid, España.
  • Paz Montelongo, S. Determinación de metales y elementos traza en algas: evaluación nutricional y toxicológica. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de La Laguna 2018; España.
  • Paz S, Jaudenes JR, Gutiérrez AJ, Rubio C, Hardisson A, Revert C. Determination of Fluoride in Organic and Non-organic Wines. Biol Trace Elem Res 2017; 178:153–159.
  • Perez JL, de Castro S. Manual de Patología General. 7 edición. Elsevier Masson; 2013.
  • Puche C, Rigalli A. Fluorosis esquelética. Actualiz Osteol 2007;3(1):50-52.
  • Repetto M, Repetto G. Toxicología fundamental. 4ª edición. Ediciones Díaz de Santos 2009; Madrid, España.
  • Ron F, Christopher CJ. Iodine and human health, the role of environmental geochemistry and diet, a review. Appl Geochem 2015; 63: 282-302.
  • SCF (Scientific Committee on Food). Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Iodine. Commission of the European Communities; 2002.
  • Zimmermann MB. Iodine Deficiency. Endocrine Reviews 2009; 30: 376-408