Identifying preservice teachers’ belief profiles and their performance in a web-based training for writing instruction

  1. Rocío C. Seoane 1
  2. Juan E. Jiménez 1
  3. Nuria Gutiérrez 1
  1. 1 Universidad de La Laguna

    Universidad de La Laguna

    San Cristobal de La Laguna, España


Psicología educativa

ISSN: 1135-755X

Year of publication: 2023

Volume: 29

Issue: 2

Pages: 121-132

Type: Article

DOI: 10.5093/PSED2023A8 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Psicología educativa


This research aims to fill the need to provide writing education to preservice teachers by using web-based instruction. The novel contribution of this work lies in the consideration of beliefs as a methodological prerequisite when measuring the effects of a web-based program. For this purpose, latent profile analysis was conducted to explore unique profiles of preservice teachers’ beliefs about writing before the web-based instruction. Participants were classified into three profiles: eclectic profile (n = 129), socio-cultural profile (n = 85), and person-environment profile (n = 105). Linear mixed-effects models were employed to assess if belief profiles experienced changes in beliefs and knowledge after the training. Results showed that belief profiles differed from each other in the degree of attribution of the different beliefs but remarkably all of them experienced significant differences in content knowledge acquisition. Finally, educational implications for preservice teachers’ education are highlighted.

Bibliographic References

  • Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2013). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: A 3-step approach using Mplus. examples/webnotes/AuxMixture_submitted_corrected_webnote.pdf
  • Baum, A. C., & King, M. A. (2006). Creating a climate of self-awareness in early childhood teacher preparation programs. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(4), 217-222. 005-0050-2
  • Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixedmodels using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1-48. https://
  • Bakk, Z., & Kuha, J. (2021). Relating latent class membership to external variables: An overview. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 74(2), 340-362.
  • Berninger, V. W. (2000). Development of language by hand and its connections with language by ear, mouth, and eye. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(4), 65-84. 200020040-00007
  • Berninger, V. W., & Winn, W. D. (2006). Implications of advancements in brain research and technology for writing development, writing instruction, and educational evolution. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 96-114). The Guilford Press.
  • Birisci, S. (2017). Identifying effectiveness of online group study on mathematical problem solving attitude: A comparative study. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(7), 223-241. https://doi. org/10.5281/zenodo.814239
  • Blömeke, S., Gustafsson, J. E., & Shavelson, R. (2015). Beyond dichotomies: Competence viewed as a continuum. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 223(1), 2-13.
  • Brenner, D., & McQuirk, A. (2019). A snapshot of writing in elementary teacher preparation programs. The New Educator, 15(1), 18-29. https://
  • Çakiroglu, A. (2019). The language acquisition approaches and the development of literacy skills in children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(2), 201-206. https://doi. org/10.26822/iejee.2019248600
  • Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. Mouton. Desimone, L. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181-199. https://doi. org/10.3102/0013189X08331140
  • Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Howse, R. B., Wilkie, H., & Annas, K. (2019). Metasynthesis of pre-service professional preparation and teacher education research studies. Education Sciences, 9(1), Article 50. S135561771700039X
  • Eichler, A., & Erens, R. (2015). Domain-specific belief systems of secondary mathematics teachers. In B. Pepin & B. Roesken-Winter (Eds.), From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education (pp. 179- 200). Springer.
  • Ferrara, M. (2017). Understanding family engagement through the focus of the national standards for family-school partnerships: Secondary pre-service teachers’ perspectives. School Community Journal, 27(2), 145-166.
  • Finch, W. H., Bolin, J. E., & Kelley, K. (2019). Multilevel modeling using R. Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  • Graham, S., Harris, K. R., MacArthur, C., & Fink, B. (2002). Primary grade teachers’ theoretical orientations concerning writing instruction: Construct validation and a nationwide survey. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 147-166. ceps.2001.1085
  • Green, T.F. (1971). The activities of teaching. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hayes, J. R., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2015). Can cognitive writing models inform the design of the common core state standards? The elementary school journal, 115(4), 480-497.
  • Hickendorff, M., Edelsbrunner, P. A., McMullen, J., Schneider, M., & Trezise, K. (2018). Informative tools for characterizing individual differences in learning: Latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 66, 4-15. lindif.2017.11.001
  • Hodges, T. S., Wright, K. L., & McTigue, E. (2019). What do middle grades preservice teachers believe about writing and writing instruction? RMLE Online, 42(2), 1-15.
  • Jiménez, J. E., & Gil, V. (2019). IPAE: indicadores de progreso de aprendizaje en escritura [Indicators of basic early writing skills] [Supplemental material]. In J. E. Jiménez (Ed.), Modelo de respuesta a la intervención. Un enfoque preventivo para el abordaje de las dificultades de aprendizaje [Response to intervention model. A preventive aproach for learning disabilities]. Pirámide.
  • Jiménez, J. E., & O’Shanahan, I. (2016). Effects of web-based training on Spanish pre-service and in-service teacher knowledge and implicit beliefs on learning to read. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 175- 187.
  • Jiménez, J. E., Seoane, R. C., García, E., & de León, S. C. (2021). Effects of web-based training on Spanish pre-service and in-service teacher knowledge and implicit beliefs on learning to write. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(1), 197-211. jcal
  • Jiménez, J.E., Seoane, R.C., Guzmán, R., Rodríguez, C., González, D., Suárez, N., O’Shanahan, I., García, E., Morales, C., de León, S.C., & Gutiérrez, N. (2020). Plataforma Web_Trazo: programa tutorial para la formación docente en el modelo de respuesta a la intervención en escritura [WebTrazo Platform: Tutorial program for teacher training in the response to intervention model in writing]. Universidad de La Laguna.
  • Johansson, S., & Myrberg, E. (2019). Teacher specialization and student perceived instructional quality: What are the relationships to student reading achievement? Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(2), 177-200. 09297-5
  • Kolin, P. C. (2022). Successful writing at work. Cengage Learning.
  • Koster, M. P., Tribushinina, E., De Jong, P., & Van den Bergh, H. H. (2015). Teaching children to write: A meta-analysis of writing intervention research. Journal of writing research, 7(2), 299-324. https://doi. org/10.17239/jowr-2015.07.02.2
  • Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. (2017). lmerTest package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. Journal of statistical software, 82(13), 1-26. https://10.18637/jss.v082.i13
  • Lanza, S. T., Tan, X., & Bray, B. C. (2013). Latent class analysis with distal outcomes: A flexible model-based approach. Structural equation modeling: A multidisciplinary journal, 20(1), 1-26. 080/10705511.2013.742377
  • Lenth, R. V. (2021). emmeans: estimated marginal means, aka leastsquares means. R package version 1.7.0. package=emmeans
  • Luo, T., Hibbard, L., Franklin, T., & Moore, D. R. (2017). Preparing teacher candidates for virtual field placements via an exposure to K-12 online teaching. Journal of Information Technology Education Research, 16(16), 1-14.
  • McLarnon, M. J., & O’Neill, T. A. (2018). Extensions of auxiliary variable approaches for the investigation of mediation, moderation, and conditional effects in mixture models. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 955-982.
  • Morrow, L. M. (2012). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write (7th Ed.). Pearson.
  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th Ed.). Muthén & Muthén.
  • Myrberg, E., Johansson, S., & Rosén, M. (2019). The relation between teacher specialization and student reading achievement. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(5), 744-758. 3831.2018.1434826
  • Oliveira, C., Lopes, J., & Spear-Swerling, L. (2019). Teachers’ academic training for literacy instruction. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(3), 315-334.
  • Pajares, M. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.
  • Reichert, F., & Torney-Purta, J. (2019). A cross-national comparison of teachers’ beliefs about the aims of civic education in 12 countries: A person-centered analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 77, 112- 125.
  • Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102- 119). Simon and Schuster/Macmillan.
  • Rietdijk, S., van Weijen, D., Janssen, T., van den Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2018). Teaching writing in primary education: Classroom practice, time, teachers’ beliefs and skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(5), 640-663.
  • Rodrigo, M., Rodríguez, A., & Marrero, J. (1993). Las teorías implícitas: una aproximación al conocimiento cotidiano [Implicit theories: An approach to daily knowledge]. Alianza Editorial.
  • R Core Team. (2021). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
  • Saine, P., & West, J. A. (2017). Content area teacher candidates’ self-efficacy beliefs of teaching writing online. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 33(2), 69-77.
  • Santagata, R., & Yeh, C. (2016). The role of perception, interpretation, and decision making in the development of beginning teachers’ competence. ZDM Mathematics Education, 48(1),153-165. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11858-015-0737-9
  • Scott, C. E., McTigue, E. M., Miller, D. M., & Washburn, E. K. (2018). The what, when, and how of preservice teachers and literacy across the disciplines: A systematic literature review of nearly 50 years of research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 73, 1-13. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.03.010
  • Seoane, R. C., Jiménez, J. E., & Gutiérrez, N. (2020). Pre-service teachers’ implicit theories of learning to write. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(2), 165 -190.
  • Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 1-23. https://doi-org.
  • Smidt, W., Kammermeyer, G., & Roux, S. (2015). Relations between the Big Five personality traits of prospective early childhood pedagogues and their beliefs about the education of preschool children: Evidence from a German study. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 96-106.
  • Stricklin, K., & Tingle, B. (2016). Using online education to transition teaching assistants to teacher certification: Examining the differences between teacher education programs. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(3), 192-202. 92840
  • Tracey, D. H., & Mandel, L. (2012). Lenses on reading: An introduction to theories and models. The Guilford Press.
  • Ulum, H. (2022). The effects of online education on academic success: A meta-analysis study. Education and Information Technologies, 27(1), 429-450.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1979). El desarrollo de los procesos psicológicos superiores [The development of superior psychological processes]. Crítica.
  • Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2019). Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Zhang, Z., Li, J., Liu, F., & Miao, Z. (2016). Hong Kong and Canadian students experiencing a new participatory culture: A teacher professional training project undergirded by new media literacies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 146-158. tate.2016.05.01